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Auteur Sujet: Théorie alternative: John A. West, R. Schoch - The Mistery of the Sphinx  (Lu 23919 fois)

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JOHN A.WEST  a fourni un choc séismique à l'archéologie au début des années 90 quand il indiqua que le grand sphinx de Gizeh, en Égypte, met en évidence l'érosion dues à des précipitations.
 
Une telle érosion pourrait seulement signifier que le sphinx a été découpé pendant ou avant que les pluies qui ont marqué la transition de l'Afrique nordique de la dernière période glaciaire à l'époque interglaciaire actuelle.
 
Cette transition s'est produite entre - 12.000 à - 7000 BP.
 
« La civilisation égyptienne n'est pas due à un développement normal pour une civilisation, elle est un legs » déclare l’archéologue.

John WEST, est un écrivain, conférencier, dramaturge et spécialiste des philosophies ésotériques, et égyptologue autodidacte et depuis quelques années un guide pour des circuits en Egypte au départ de New-York et avec dans ce circuit une journée dédiée au Sphinx.
admn : les images ne sont plus disponibles

Sa source d'inspiration à l'origine de ses recherches sur le Sphinx proviennent du livre «le Temple de l'homme» écrit par un [alsacien nommé Schwaller de Lubicz.  Ce livre étant de ceux qu'un spécialiste des philosophies ésotériques se doit d'avoir sur sa table de chevet.

La Thèse de Schwaller précise que: toutes ces connaissances extraordinaires dont les Egyptiens ont bénéficié, il n'est pas possible que ce peuple de paysans les ait acquises comme cela, en quelques décennies. C'est forcément un héritage. Légué par qui? Les soucoupes volantes n'ayant pas encore été inventées à l'époque, Schwaller ne voyait qu'un légataire possible: l'Atlantide, ce royaume légendaire évoqué par Platon et qui fut noyé sous les mers par un des nombreux déluges dont parlent les vieux mythes.

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Parmi ses faits d'armes, on peut citer:

I - Réfuter l'argument de ressemblance morphologique entre le Sphinx et ce qui aurait été son modèle:
John WEST, fit appel à des méthodes pour le moins inhabituelles. Il s'attacha en effet les services du lieutenant Franck DOMINGO, expert de la police de New York, spécialiste dans la reconstruction de visages mutilés ou incomplets. Franck DOMINGO, qui dirigea pendant 30 ans le service de médecine légale de la police de N.Y, utilisa son expérience et ses connaissance en matière de morphologie pour comparer le visage du Sphinx à celui de Khéphren. [cette étude est traitée dans le post suivant]

Domingo conclut :

« Si les preuves irréfutables démontrent par la suite que le Sphinx était bien l’effigie de Khéphren, alors les artistes qui ont travaillé sur ce monument etaient de piètres techniciens».

Les égyptologues les plus conservateurs ont considéré que le travail de Domingo n’avait pas de valeur scientifique. James Romano, spécialiste du Brooklyn Muséum de New-York, déclara que l’art égyptien n’était pas « de la photographie » mais une « réalité idéalisé » que Domingo « plaquait des normes modèles sur une esthétique ancienne » et que ses analyses n’avaient par conséquent - aucune pertinence scientifique.

Aux yeux des égyptologues, les éléments apportés par Domingo ne constituaient pas une preuve susceptible de remettre en question la datation du Sphinx communément admise.

source

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II - L’estimation en vigueur de l’âge du monument:
West enfourcha alors un nouveau cheval de bataille et suggéra que l’érosion du Sphinx n’était pas due aux vents ou au sable du désert, mais à l’eau de pluie. La plus ancienne grande période de pluie connue en Egypte remontait en effet à la fin de la dernière glaciation, soit 12 000 ans avant JC.

Pour que cette nouvelle théorie soit à même de convaincre les égyptologues les plus rétifs, John West devait obtenir la coopération d’un expert géologue de renom, dont les travaux et recherches ne souffriraient aucune critique. John West parvint à trouver un scientifique répondant à ces critères en la personne de Robert Schoch, de l’université de Boston.

Ses travaux et ceux de Robert Schoch ont eu un tel écho médiatique, qu'ils ont eu droit à un film par NBC en 1993 réalisé par l'un des hommes de Steven Spielberg et avec comme commentateur l'acteur Charlton Heston. Cette émission ayant touché à l'époque une trentaine de millions d'américains [cf article du Nouvel Observateur de l'époque dans l'un des posts suivants].
 
Il a obtenu une récompense, un EMMY AWARDS spécial de la chaîne NBC pour son documentaire en 1993 sur le mystère du sphinx. A cette occasion, il fut  accueilli par Charlton HESTON en personne.
 
John Anthony WEST est aujourd'hui la principale autorité de l'école des « Symbolistes » d'Égyptologie : une interprétation alternative de la culture égyptienne antique avancée par l’archéologue français, R.A. SCHWALLER  de LUBICZ (1891-1962). Selon les « Symbolistes », l'architecture et l'art égyptien révèlent une sagesse plus riche et plus universelle que l’Égyptologie conventionnelle le suppose.
 
Il est l’auteur de Best Seller comme « Serpent in the Sky » et « the mystery of the Sphinx »

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Robert SCHOCH

Les études géologiques de R. SCHOCH et T. DOBECKI

    D'esprit large, R. SCHOCH accepta la mission peu académique. L'examen du site auquel il procéda confirma que le Sphinx et les parois du fossé dans lequel il repose portent des signes caractéristiques d'érosion par l'eau. Il constata également que les temples environnants avaient été taillés dans la même roche. Il révéla ensuite une curieuse anomalie: le Sphinx et le mur qui l'entoure avaient été attaqués par l'érosion sur 1 mètre d'épaisseur, alors que des strates rocheuses voisines, de nature identique, n'avaient pas subi les mêmes dégradations.

    Pour consolider son argumentation, J.WEST chercha à savoir à quelle époque la roche aux alentours du Sphinx avait été taillée pour la première fois. "Détail" qui lui permettrait de determiner la période de construction du monument. Il fit ainsi venir de Houston Thomas DOBECKI. En étudiant l'état des sédiments autour du Sphinx, T. DOBECKI pensait pouvoir dater sa construction de manière fiable, partant du principe que plus l'érosion de la roche par l'eau serait profonde, plus sa durée d'exposition à la pluie serait longue.

    Selon les analyses de T. DOBECKI, le corps du Sphinx aurait été taillé par étapes et l'avant du monument serait plus ancien que l'arrière, d'environ 3.000 ans. R. SCHOCH en conclut que Khéphren avait dû découvir le Sphinx inachevé. Il aurait restauré le monument, ainsi que les temples aux alentours, notamment en dallant de granit le sol calcaire du site. Toujours selon lui, en raison de son grand âge, le Sphinx aurait subi plusieurs campagnes de réparations pendant les millénaires qui suivirent. Il avance que les Égyptiens avaient dû le découvrir avec un tout autre visage, car sa tête est proportionnellement plus petite que son corps: la statue aurait donc été modifiée et adaptée au style de l'Égypte Antique.

    Néanmoins ( ou nez en moins, comme nous parlons du Sphinx ...), le professeur Robert SCHOCH, soucieux de sa réputation, se limita à 8 500 ans pour dater le Sphinx, sans doute pour ne pas accréditer la théorie des Atlantes prônée par John WEST. Quoi qu'il en soit, force est de reconnaître que nous sommes plutôt loin des 4 500 ans généralement admis par la Communauté Scientifique.

Source




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The Mystery of the Sphinx






On November 10, 1993, the NBC television network broadcast "The Mystery of the Sphinx," introducing thirty million American viewers to the discovery by John Anthony West and Robert Schoch that the Great Sphinx of Giza might be thousands of years older than its assumed date of 2500 BC. Narrated by Charlton Heston, the documentary provides evidence that the ancient Egyptians possessed scientific knowledge unknown to us and carried on the wisdom tradition of an earlier lost civilization.

An expanded version of the documentary - Available from The Sphinx Project at 518-678-2160, or write to The Sphinx Project, 675 Manorville Rd. Saugerties NY 12477, USA. VHS format.

Ou DVD Zone 1 Réalisateur : Bill Cote
Acteurs : Charlton Heston -John Anthony West - Professor Robert Schoch
Ratio Image : 1.33:1





The Mystery of the Sphinx (Broadcast Version)

Source texte ci-dessus et images

Presents, for the first time ever, the controversial findings of author/egyptologist John Anthony West that the Sphinx was eroded by water: in a region of the Sahara Desert that has been dry for 9,000 years. This observable geological fact means that The Great Sphinx must be at least 9,000 years old: TWICE AS OLD AS HISTORY TELLS US!

The HALL OF RECORDS was described by the famous American psychic Edgar Cayce as a hidden chamber containing all the records of humanity's history, including the Lost Continent of Atlantis. He said the entrance would be found under the paws of the Sphinx! John Anthony West's team of seismologists, headed by Boston University's Professor Robert Schoch, discovered a square cavity directly beneath one of the paws. According to the experts, it did not appear to be a natural formation. Could this be the Hall of Records of Atlantis?


BC Video camera crews explore a mysterious cavity at the rear of The Great Sphinx. The legends say the entrance to the Hall of Records is beneath The Sphinx, where sub-surface passageways lead to secret chambers within The Great Pyramid. Underground readings with a seismograph have revealed the existence of such passageways, but permission from the Egyptian Government to investigate has been denied, so far.



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Author, lecturer, and guide, John Anthony West delivered a seismic shock to archaeology in the early 1990's when he and Boston University geologist Robert Schoch revealed that the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt, showed evidence of rainfall erosion. Such erosion could only mean that the Sphinx was carved during or before the rains that marked the transition of northern Africa from the last Ice Age to the present interglacial epoch, a transition that occurred in the millennia from 10,000 to 5000 BC.

"Egyptian civilisation was not a development, it was a legacy"

John Anthony West

Son site officiel: http://www.jawest.net/


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http://www.myspace.com/jawsphinx

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Son activité de guide "expert" en Egypte:

Film promotionnel sur des circuits en Egypte avec JOHN ANTHONY WEST :

MAGICAL EGYPT TOURS PROMO

Magical Egypt Tour Itinerary

Regular Tour Price: $4795*# single person, double occupancy (includes airfare, hotel accommodations, domestic air travel, tips and services - unless specifically mentioned otherwise).

* Due to an added day on the trip, the descending dollar and sharply increased airfares and hotel rates, I’ve been obliged to raise the price for this tour. Sorry, but it can’t be helped.

# While plane fares are locked in, there could be unannounced additional taxes levied, fuel surcharges and security fees applied. If that happens I will have to pass those on to clients, but these will not be exorbitant.

Day 1: Depart USA for Cairo, Egypt

6:30 PM EgyptAir departure from New York JFK. Check in at least 3 hours prior to departure time. Prior to departure check up-to-the-moment security regulations.

Day 2: Cairo, Giza

Arrive Cairo airport midday. Tour representatives see us through customs and baggage claim. Air-conditioned coach through Cairo to our 5-star hotel in Giza near the Great Pyramid. Introductory briefing en route. Dinner on your own.

Day 3: Giza Pyramids and The Great Sphinx

Early breakfast at our hotel. Private 8 AM visit to the Sphinx enclosure. We spend about 2 hours in and
around the enclosure, the Great Sphinx and its adjacent temples. Lots of geology, but this establishes
the validity of the 'Lost Civilization' theory, important for everything that follows. Also, discussions of the
many (usually unacknowledged) mysteries involved in building these amazing structures, what lies
behind their extraordinary energetic/emotional impact, etc.
 
We work our way up the Plateau, past the Old Kingdom tombs of nobles and notables, toward the
pyramids. More important evidence along the way (e.g. the 'Tomb' of Khentkaus, a Queen of Menkaure
[builder of Third Pyramid], and also, because few tourists visit these places, we're on our own and get a
good visceral sense of what was going on in these early times.
 
Up on the Plateau around the pyramids much more evidence (architectural/ geological) for the 'Lost
Civilization'. Huge 200 ton paving blocks we could barely move today, etc. Two distinct masonry styles
and therefore two distinct building periods...
 
This takes us to between noon and 1 PM, depending upon how much input there is from group
members. Always lots of questions and if anyone in the group has expertise relevant to and/or
complementing my explanations, discussions can be long, lively, detailed and instructive.
 
Then a visit to the so-called Solar Boat of Khufu, his amazing, intact, meticulously re-configured
funerary boat, which is both a demonstration of the extremely sophisticated woodworking techniques in
place 2500 BC and also of the power and wisdom of anchoring the spiritual quest in the material/
physical world.
 
When the Quest is relegated solely to the intellect, as in the case of much contemporary mysticism, it
tends to become abstract and effectively ineffective.
 
Lunch (included) at an excellent local seafood restaurant. By now it's 3 PM and that's enough for most
of us!

source et suite
« Modifié: 14 octobre 2019 à 23:56:54 par Modération »
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Théorie alternative: John A. West, R. Schoch - The Mistery of the Sphinx
« Réponse #1 le: 24 août 2009 à 11:57:08 »


L'étude criminologique de Frank DOMINGO comparer le visage du Sphinx à Khéphren

Afin de parvenir à réfuter l'argument de ressemblance morphologique entre le Sphinx et ce qui aurait été son modèle, John WEST, écrivain et égyptologue autodidacte, fit appel à des méthodes pour le moins inhabituelles. Il s'attacha en effet les services du lieutenant Franck DOMINGO, expert de la police de New York, spécialiste dans la reconstruction de visages mutilés ou incomplets. Franck DOMINGO, qui dirigea pendant 30 ans le service de médecine légale de la police de N.Y, utilisa son expérience et ses connaissance en matière de morphologie pour comparer le visage du Sphinx à celui de Khéphren.

Il photographia le Sphinx sous différents angles et à différents moments de la journée afin de supprimer tout effet d'ombre. Puis il photographia la statue de Khéphren exposée au musée du Caire sous les mêmes angles et en releva les mensurations du visage (à gauche). Il compara ensuite les 2 modèles, expérience difficile vu l'érosion du Sphinx. DOMINGO constata en définitive que la mâchoire intérieure du Sphinx était nettement plus proéminente que celle de la statue de Khéphren, son modèle supposé, et que les yeux du Sphinx étaient implantés plus loin en arrière.

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 Franck DOMINGO réalisa ces croquis du Sphinx et de la statue de Khéphren. Il traça une droite du menton jusqu'au coin de l'oeil et compara les angles. L'angle de Khéphren (en haut) est de 14° alors que celui du Sphinx (en bas) est de 32°. Les fabuleux architectes égyptien auraient-ils pu faire une telle erreur?...Cela fait un peu désordre, surtout en comparaison de l'incroyable précision des pyramides de Giseh. Pour DOMINGO, il s'agissait bien là de deux personnes différentes ...
Malgré ces éléments, les égyptologues les plus conservateurs décrétèrent de façon péremptoire que le travail de F.DOMINGO n'avait pas de valeur scientifique et ne constituait pas une preuve susceptible de remettre en question la version officielle.
Et pourtant, à moins de disposer d'une machine à remonter le temps, rien ne prouve que les traits visibles sur le monument soient ceux de Khéphren. Ils pourraient aussi bien appartenir à d'autres pharaons, tels THOUTMOSIS IV, AMENHOTEP ou RAMSES II

source 1
Source 2

Selon les théories en vigueur, le Sphinx aurait été construit par le pharaon Khâfrê (Khéphren en grec), bâtisseur supposé de la deuxième pyramide de Gizeh vers 2500 avant J.C.

En effet, et c'est le premier argument, pour les égyptologues partisans de cette doctrine officielle, la construction du Sphinx daterait du règne de Khéphren ( 2520- 2494 avant J.C. ) notamment parce que son visage a les traits d'une statue du Pharaon, exposée au musée du Caire.

source

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Statue de Khéphren en diorite (Musée du Caire)                                    

admn : la vidéo n'est plus disponible


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Figure 2: Reconstructed Face of the Sphinx Compared with that of Khafre  (After Domingo in West, Serpent in the Sky, Appendix II, pp. 230-1)

Khephren, à l’image de son père, décida de se faire construire une pyramide. Située à Gizeh, cette dernière est plus petite (114 mètres de haut dont 136 à l’origine.) mais a mieux résisté aux ravages du temps.


La pyramide de Khephren.

« Modifié: 09 décembre 2019 à 00:24:18 par Modération »
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The mistery of the Sphinx et autres vidéos
« Réponse #2 le: 24 août 2009 à 12:51:24 »

This is the Documentary that shook up Egyptian Archaeology when it was broadcast on NBC television. "The Mystery of the Sphinx," introduced American viewers to the discovery by John Anthony West and Robert Schoch that the Great Sphinx of Giza might be thousands of years older than its assumed date of 2500 BC. Narrated by Charlton Heston, the documentary provides evidence that the ancient Egyptians possessed scientific knowledge unknown to us and carried on the wisdom tradition of an earlier lost civilization.


The Mystery of the Sphinx


On November 10, 1993, the NBC television network broadcast "The Mystery of the Sphinx," introducing thirty million American viewers to the discovery by John Anthony West and Robert Schoch that the Great Sphinx of Giza might be thousands of years older than its assumed date of 2500 BC. Narrated by Charlton Heston, the documentary provides evidence that the ancient Egyptians possessed scientific knowledge unknown to us and carried on the wisdom tradition of an earlier lost civilization.

An expanded version of the documentary - Available from The Sphinx Project at 518-678-2160, or write to The Sphinx Project, 675 Manorville Rd. Saugerties NY 12477, USA. VHS format.

Ou DVD Zone 1 Réalisateur : Bill Cote
Acteurs : Charlton Heston -John Anthony West - Professor Robert Schoch
Ratio Image : 1.33:1





Documentaire en anglais en cinq parties à lire en cliquant sur les liens sur le site disclose TV:

http://www.disclose.tv/viewvideo/28200/The_Mystery_of_the_Sphinx_Pt_1_à 5/
admn : Malicious aliens have abducted this page from Disclose.tv! Go to www.disclose.tv (lien sur page d'accueil) to learn more about their nature and intentions.

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Plus de 100 minutes à la radio avec John Antony West et de belles photos en appoint:

John Anthony West is a writer, scholar and Pythagorean. He is the author of The Traveler's Key to Ancient Egypt, Serpent in the Sky: The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt, The Case for Astrology, as well as consulting editor for the Traveler's Key series.

John writes articles, essays and criticism for The New York Times Book Review, Conde Nast's Traveler and others.

He won an EMMY Award for his 1993 NBC Special Documentary, The Mystery of the Sphinx, hosted by Charlton Heston.

He is the leading authority and proponent of the 'Symbolist' school of Egyptology, an alternative interpretation of ancient Egyptian culture advanced by the French scholar and philosopher, R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz.

In addition, John lectures extensively on Egypt and personally leads several in-depth study tours to Egypt every year.

John shared theories, evidence, and interpretation regarding the Sphinx and the pyramids at Giza. It's "deep heresy" to today's scientific establishment that an ancient civilization had skills that surpass our own-- yet that is what they must have had to make these awe-inspiring structures, he argued.

Visiting the Sphinx in-person gave West a sense of "unspeakable antiquity" and pride that human beings had made such a monument.

It's meant to signal an "ingress to the Age of Leo," and the last one occurred 10,500 BC, though he believes the Sphinx might have been constructed in the earlier age of Leo which took place at 36,500 BC. Edgar Cayce predicted that a Hall of Records would be found at the base of the Sphinx, and West shared that a cavern under bedrock has been detected by seismograph under the left paw.

It appears to be a rectangular shape approximately 36 X 45 feet.

He explored various theories as to how these structures were built:
They used a technology we don't recognize, which could be hidden in a religious symbol.
They employed a "soft" technology such as music or sound.
The work was performed by people in a heightened state of consciousness.
Beyond issues of how and when these grand structures were made, West stressed their religious importance in reconnecting humankind with divine consciousness.
June 21st, 2006
http://www.jawest.net/
http://www.magicalegypt.com/
http://www.coasttocoastam.com/shows/2...

youtube - John Anthony West Pt.1 à 10
admn : les vidéos ne sont plus disponibles

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Luxor Temple in Man - John Anthony West

Amazing research on Luxor Temple featuring John Anthony West. Taken from his Magical Egypt series

Luxor Temple in Man - John Anthony West

Luxor Temple in Man 2 - John Anthony West

« Modifié: 21 avril 2014 à 18:09:41 par katchina »
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Les vidéos avec John Anthony West: CPAK - Magical Egypt
« Réponse #3 le: 24 août 2009 à 18:24:46 »

Interview réalisée après la sortie de son livre:



Book: The Serpent In The Sky: The High Wisdom Of Ancient Egypt

Descriptions du produit From Publishers Weekly
John Antony West updates his 1979 account of the advanced civilization of Ancient Egypt. Illustrated.
Copyright 1993 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Ingram
This revised edition of West's revolutionary reinterpretation of the civilization of Egypt challenges all that has been accpeted as dogma concerning this ancient and enigmatic land. It features a new introduction linking Egyptian science with the perennial wisdom tradition and an appendix updating the author's work in redating the Sphinx. Illustrations.
Détails sur le produit
Broché: 266 pages
Editeur : Quest Books,U.S.; Édition : New edition (avril 1996)

Mysteries of the Sphinx by John Anthony West

Description: John Anthony West interviewed on Ted Loman's Off the Record TV show, featuring NBC special on the age of the Sphinx, narrated by Charlton Heston. Directed by Bill Cote; used with permission of Mr. Cote and Ted Loman.

admn : la vidéo myspace n'est plus disponible

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This triple scholarly sundae briefly recapitulates West's Egypt work to date and introduces important new developments. His discussion of the dreaded 'A' Word (Atlantis) focuses on a little known scholarly study that should put Atlantis hunting in an altogether new and challenging perspective. The Magical Mystery Topic, if revealed, would no longer be a mystery or magical, but it will be, among other adjectives, controversial, original, incendiary, entertaining and unforgettable. Excerpt from the full presentation.

Visit: www.CPAKonline.com
admn : lien sur page d'accueil

John Anthony West at CPAK 2007

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Extract from the 8 DVD series Magical Egypt, produced by Chance Gardner, and based on the research of John Anthony West

MAGICAL EGYPT A SYMBOLIST TOUR


Documentaire  Magical Egypt - Illumination avec comme présentateur John Antony West en cinq parties

youtube - Magical Egypt - Illumination (Part 1 à 5)
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Pour les yeux et les oreilles avec de magnifiques vues aériennes
« Réponse #4 le: 24 août 2009 à 18:26:46 »

Pour les yeux et les oreilles avec de magnifiques vues aériennes de notre copain le sphinx

Lapin

A collection of unusual aerial photographs of the Sphinx on the Giza Plateau in Egypt, music by Patrick Leonard/Shenkar - "pudusu" from their CD "udistam".

The Sphinx is classic in its structure and form. Its body is a beautifully proportioned carving out of one piece of limestone bedrock on the edge of the Giza Plateau.

The Sphinx of Giza is about 240' long and 66' high.

John Anthony West and Dr. Robert Schoch, a geologist/geophysicist, from Boston University, presented the idea that the weathering on the body of the Sphinx and walls of the Sphinx enclosure had been created by precipitation - over a long enough period of time to create the deep fissures and smooth rounded shapes you can see, particularly on the west and south walls of the Sphinx enclosure.

Detective Frank Domingo, a senior forensic officer with the NYPD applied his expertise of identification techniques to compare the facial structure between the Sphinx, and the Pharoah Chephren from a statue in the Cairo Museum. The attribution of Chephren being the builder of the Sphinx is partly because of this discovery and dedication given by proxy, reports suggesting they look similar. Take a good look.

Check out John Anthony West's YouTube Channels: JAWSPHINX99 and MYSTERYOFTHESPHINX

The Sphinx - whether the weather be wet or....
« Modifié: 24 août 2009 à 20:38:57 par titilapin2 »
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Les études géologiques du PhD Robert SCHOCH et T. DOBECKI
« Réponse #5 le: 24 août 2009 à 18:27:17 »

Les études géologiques du PhD Robert SCHOCH et T. DOBECKI en appui à la thèse de John Antony WEST

Rappel de sa contribution:

  D'esprit large, R. SCHOCH accepta la mission peu académique. L'examen du site auquel il procéda confirma que le Sphinx et les parois du fossé dans lequel il repose portent des signes caractéristiques d'érosion par l'eau. Il constata également que les temples environnants avaient été taillés dans la même roche. Il révéla ensuite une curieuse anomalie: le Sphinx et le mur qui l'entoure avaient été attaqués par l'érosion sur 1 mètre d'épaisseur, alors que des strates rocheuses voisines, de nature identique, n'avaient pas subi les mêmes dégradations.

    Pour consolider son argumentation, J.WEST chercha à savoir à quelle époque la roche aux alentours du Sphinx avait été taillée pour la première fois. "Détail" qui lui permettrait de determiner la période de construction du monument. Il fit ainsi venir de Houston Thomas DOBECKI. En étudiant l'état des sédiments autour du Sphinx, T. DOBECKI pensait pouvoir dater sa construction de manière fiable, partant du principe que plus l'érosion de la roche par l'eau serait profonde, plus sa durée d'exposition à la pluie serait longue.

    Selon les analyses de T. DOBECKI, le corps du Sphinx aurait été taillé par étapes et l'avant du monument serait plus ancien que l'arrière, d'environ 3.000 ans. R. SCHOCH en conclut que Khéphren avait dû découvir le Sphinx inachevé. Il aurait restauré le monument, ainsi que les temples aux alentours, notamment en dallant de granit le sol calcaire du site. Toujours selon lui, en raison de son grand âge, le Sphinx aurait subi plusieurs campagnes de réparations pendant les millénaires qui suivirent. Il avance que les Égyptiens avaient dû le découvrir avec un tout autre visage, car sa tête est proportionnellement plus petite que son corps: la statue aurait donc été modifiée et adaptée au style de l'Égypte Antique.

    Néanmoins ( ou nez en moins, comme nous parlons du Sphinx ...), le professeur Robert SCHOCH, soucieux de sa réputation, se limita à 8 500 ans pour dater le Sphinx, sans doute pour ne pas accréditer la théorie des Atlantes prônée par John WEST. Quoi qu'il en soit, force est de reconnaître que nous sommes plutôt loin des 4 500 ans généralement admis par la Communauté Scientifique.

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Les simulations informatiques, tirées du documentaire de la télévision américaine Mystery of the Sphinx, montrent comment, selon Robert Schoch, le Sphinx a vieilli.



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(en haut)Schoch pense qu’une énorme tête, peut-être celle d’un lion , fut construite il y a 8000 ans, à l’époque où la vallée du Nil etait une savane verdoyante.

 (en bas) Au cours des milliers d’années qui suivirent, la tête aurait été retaillée, jusqu’à prendre sa forme actuelle.


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Néanmoins, le professeur Robert SCHOCH, soucieux de sa réputation, se limita à 8 500 ans pour dater le Sphinx, sans doute pour ne pas accréditer la théorie des Atlantes prônée par John WEST. Quoi qu'il en soit, force est de reconnaître que nous sommes plutôt loin des 4 500 ans généralement admis par la Communauté Scientifique.


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Professor Robert M. Schoch. Courtesy and copyright of Robert M. Schoch


In 1989, West invited Dr. Robert Schoch, an associate professor and geologist at Boston University, to examine the Sphinx. Schoch was skeptical of an earlier age but agreed to visit the monument in 1990. Preliminary observations prompted him to return in 1991 with Dr. Thomas Dobecki, a private geophysicist, who took soundings of the rock below the enclosure floor. The tests were to determine non-invasively whether the rock underneath showed evidence that could be interpreted as weathering, and if so, to what depths. Schoch reported the results along with his observations of the surface geology in several articles.

Robert M. Schoch, " Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza," originally published in KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer 1992), pp. 52-59, 66-70.

Thomas L. Dobecki and Robert M. Schoch, "Seismic Investigations in the Vicinity of the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt," Geoarchaeology, Vol. 7, No. 6 (1992), pp. 527-544.

West had supposed that Nile river flooding was the likely cause of any water weathering of the Sphinx and its enclosure. Schoch determined, however, that flood levels were not high enough to produce the erosion visible on the Sphinx and its walls. The exposed surface rock, with its deep roundedness and fissuring (Fig. 3.1 below), suggested to Schoch instead that the Sphinx and its walls had eroded from rainfall.


Fig. 3.1. The western end of the south wall of the Sphinx enclosure. Courtesy and copyright of John Anthony West.

In their survey of the enclosure floor (Fig. 3.2 below), Schoch and Dobecki took soundings along four lines: one parallel to the north side of the Sphinx body (S1), one parallel to the south side (S2), one behind the monument and perpendicular to the first two (S3), and one in front of the Sphinx (S4) parallel to the one in back. A sledgehammer striking a metal plate at shotpoints along each line produced the sound waves, and monitoring equipment recorded the wave velocities (in meters per second) as they bounced back from the rock below.



Fig. 3.2. Overview of the four sounding lines (in red) that Schoch and Dobecki took in 1991 around the Sphinx.

The soundings disclosed a region of lower velocities between 1.0-1.5 meters deep along the S3 line and 2.0-2.5 meters in depth along the S1 and S2 lines, falling to 3-4 meters deep along the S4 line (Fig. 3.3 below). Below this region lay bedrock that returned higher velocities.









Fig. 3.3. Graphs showing the depths of velocities in the subsurface rock recorded by Schoch and Dobecki. The green line in each diagram is the ground surface. Lower-velocity rock lay between the ground level and the red line in each diagram. Higher-velocity rock lay below the red line. Source: Thomas L. Dobecki and Robert M. Schoch, "Seismic Investigations in the Vicinity of the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt," Geoarchaeology, Vol. 7, No. 6 (1992), p. 534.

Schoch believed that the region of lower velocities did not follow the natural bedding of the rock. Since unweathered rock returns higher velocities than weathered rock, Schoch interpreted the lower-velocity region as weathered.

Neither the erosion to the Sphinx and its walls, nor the lower velocities in the rock below the enclosure floor, suggested when the floor was first exposed. But the lower-velocity region measured by the S3 line in back was only half as deep as the regions measured by the two flank lines, and the transition to the flank lines was relatively abrupt. To Schoch, this suggested that the area behind the Sphinx was cut back at a later time.



Fig. 3.4. The back terrace shelf of the Sphinx enclosure below the western wall. Schoch believed that the passageway behind the Sphinx was a later cutback of this shelf. Courtesy and copyright of Jon Bodsworth

On the assumption that the back was cleared by Khafra, Schoch estimated that the rest of the floor was between 50 and 100 percent as old, or excavated between 7000 and 4750 BCE. Schoch noted that the Sphinx could have dated before 7000 if the rate of weathering was non-linear, meaning that weathering might have taken longer to penetrate the subsurface as the mass of overhead rock increased.

In a 1992 article for KMT, a magazine reporting developments in Egyptology to a general audience, Schoch summarized his surface and subsurface findings. He also addressed the conventional view of how the Sphinx had weathered, agreeing that salt exfoliation induced by moisture in the atmosphere was a factor in the past, although modern air pollution had probably accelerated the process. Wind-blown sand was also a factor in weathering. But Schoch argued that wind-blown sand typically produces a kind of erosion characterized by sharper lines and jaggedness, not by the smoothness or rounding visible on the Sphinx and its walls. As an example of wind weathering, he pointed to the tomb of Debehen, four hundred yards southwest of the Sphinx (Fig. 3.5).



Fig. 3.5. Debehen's Tomb. Sharp jagged weathering can be seen on the rock face above the entrance. Courtesy and copyright of Jon Bodsworth

If the Sphinx was no older than the Old Kingdom, Schoch believed, it should display a more jagged appearance and not the more rounded weathering profile visible on the western enclosure wall (Fig. 3.4 above) and on the western end of the southern enclosure wall (Fig. 3.1 above). Schoch believed that the heavy rains at the end of the prehistoric period had produced the rounded profiles on the Sphinx and its enclosure walls.

Schoch also suggested some other evidence to date the monument to an earlier time. Parts of the Khafra Valley Temple showed weathered limestone core blocks behind harder granite facing. Schoch argued that the granite facing stones had been fitted to the eroded profile of the core blocks; if the facing stones were of Old Kingdom origin, the core blocks were much older. To the objection that there was no known civilization in Egypt before 4000 BCE, he pointed to Jericho and other sites in the wider region that had stone architecture as early as the ninth millennium BCE.

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Redating the Sphinx: A Prehistoric Sphinx?

The controversy over the age of the Sphinx may be said to have begun in 1980, when the Egyptologist Mark Lehner reported that the body of the Sphinx was severely eroded behind the earliest known blocks of facing stone that had been applied in ancient times to protect the monument.

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Mark Lehner with James P. Allen and K. Lal Gauri, "The ARCE Sphinx Project: A Preliminary Report," The ARCE Newsletter, No. 112 (1980), 3-33.


As part of their 1979 mapping survey, Dr. Mark Lehner, director of the American Research Center in Egypt in the 1980s, and Dr. K. Lal Gauri, director of the Stone Conservation Laboratory at the University of Louisville, Kentucky, USA, identified and recorded the exposed surface strata of the monument and the stone blocks that provided a protective facing to its lower elevations. Lehner's 1980 report noted an anomaly about the main body (words in square brackets are added for clarification):

"Except for the prominent boss on the chest, we have nowhere observed any kind of working marks on the core-body, either in the way of tool marks or of surfaces that would seem to have been left by rough quarrying activity. Neither have we found any profile on the core that would appear to be of finished sculpture. This might easily be explained by saying that the part of the core-body now showing - almost entirely of the very soft Bed 2 stone - has been eroded so badly that all such traces have disappeared. Even so, in the cross-sections showing through the successive layers of masonry [ie. facing stone blocks] added to the core, one would expect such traces to show under the earliest level of stonework had it been added soon after the core was formed, thereafter protecting the profile of the parent rock. But on the face and profile of the core in such cases (Figs. 3, 4 [in original report]) there are no observable indications of parts of a finished profile or of working marks. Rather, the profile of the core seems in all cases to be one of severe erosion, leaving the softer yellowish bands and harder intermediate strata showing a profile of successive rolls and undulations. These considerations would seem to indicate that the core-body of the Sphinx was already severely eroded when the earliest level of large-block masonry was added to it."[1]

To reconcile these observations with the traditional attribution of the monument to Khafra, Lehner and his colleagues concluded that the earliest facing stones were repairs dating from the New Kingdom, c. 1400 BCE. Subsequent restorations showed that there was no significant erosion to the Sphinx after the repairs of the New Kingdom. Consequently, the weathering had to have occurred in the centuries from 2500 to 1400 BCE.

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John Anthony West, Serpent in the Sky: The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt (Wheaton IL: Quest Books, 1993), pp. 183-223

Lehner's findings came to the attention of the writer and tour guide John Anthony West, author of The Traveler's Key to Ancient Egypt. West had first touched on the Sphinx in his book, Serpent in the Sky, an introduction in English to the work of the French esotericist R.A. Schwaller de Lubicz (1887-1961). Schwaller believed that Egypt was the source of the ideas associated with the Greek philosopher and teacher Pythagoras and that a proper understanding of ancient Egypt required an openness to the mystical as well as mathematical knowledge that Schwaller believed to be encoded in Egyptian art and architecture. Schwaller's major work,The Temple of Man (Inner Traditions, 1999), is now available in English.[2]


John Anthony West. Courtesy and copyright of John Anthony West

Schwaller also speculated that ancient Egypt owed its core knowledge to a lost civilization that flourished in prehistoric times. As evidence of this earlier origin, Schwaller asserted that the weathering of the Sphinx was caused by water, not by wind and sand. During the transition from the last ice age to the onset of present desert conditions, Egypt experienced rainfall and flooding heavier than any that has occurred since then. Heavy rains fell in intervals between 10,000 and 3000 BCE and then tapered off to their current level of about 2 cm per year by the end of the third millennium. Schwaller dated the Sphinx to this transitional climate or earlier, and West thought that closer geological study of the Sphinx might provide scientific confirmation.

In his initial study, Gauri had supposed that groundwater leeching upward inside the rock was the cause of salt exfoliation to the Sphinx. West pointed out that if the Sphinx had stopped eroding from the New Kingdom onward, this could not have been the reason for the erosion. The water table had risen since the New Kingdom and groundwater should have continued to leech upward, causing further damage. Modern development had caused a dramatic rise in the water table during the twentieth century and Gauri was correct to warn of the danger this posed to the Sphinx (the water table has since been brought down). But something else was responsible for the erosion of the Sphinx before the twentieth century.

West thought the archaeological evidence left open the possibility of an earlier date. The oldest facing blocks on the monument were of a large size previously thought to have been applied at the time of the original carving (subsequent repairs to the Sphinx used smaller blocks and bricks). Lehner was the first to suggest that the large blocks were a later addition. West realized that if the date of application was not in fact certain, the blocks might have been Old Kingdom repairs to an already-eroded Sphinx.

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Launching a Controversy

West and Schoch defended their findings initially before two professional gatherings. At the October 1991 meeting of the Geological Society of America, the two conducted a "poster session" in which they sat at a table in a hall (with other scientists holding poster sessions of their own) and explained their work to interested GSA members who passed by. Although not formally endorsing an earlier Sphinx, the scientists who stopped at the West-Schoch table responded with interest, and about seventy asked to be notified of further research.
At a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in February 1992, Schoch and Dobecki debated Mark Lehner and K. Lal Gauri before an audience of several hundred.[3] Lehner underlined the absence of any evidence of civilization or complex society in Egypt during the millennia proposed by Schoch and West for the original carving of the Sphinx. But Lehner and Gauri did not more fully engage West and Schoch; they would do so only in later publications after having had more time to consider the geological and archaeological evidence for dating the Sphinx to Khafra.

In an hour-long privately-produced documentary, "The Mystery of the Sphinx", broadcast on the American NBC television network on November 10, 1993, West and Schoch presented the geological evidence in favor of their earlier dating to an audience of about thirty million people. During the program, West also presented the work of Detective Frank Domingo, a senior forensic artist for the New York City Police Department, who compared the face on the Sphinx with the face on the statue of Khafra in the Cairo Museum. Domingo determined that the face on the Sphinx was not the face of Khafra; the Sphinx had a prognathic jaw more typical of an African from farther south. The "Mystery of the Sphinx" program received an Emmy Award for Research and brought the West-Schoch findings to public notice. Controversy followed.


Notes

1. Mark Lehner with James P. Allen and K. Lal Gauri, "The ARCE Sphinx Project: A Preliminary Report," The ARCE Newsletter, No. 112 (1980), pp. 17-18.

2. At the time, however, one scholar who did not accept Schwaller's larger conclusions credited him with insights missed by other scholars. See the review by Bernard V. Bothmer of the abridged version of Schwaller's book in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2 (April 1952), pp. 151-152.

3. For a brief report of the AAAS exchange, see Elizabeth Culotta, "Sphinx Riddle Put to Rest?" Science, Vol. 255, No. 5046 (14 February 1992), p. 793. For a more detailed account by an eyewitness in the audience, see Paul William Roberts, River in the Desert (New York: Random House, 1993), pp. 127-135.

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Re : En construction: John Anthony West, Robert Schoch et le Sphinx
« Réponse #6 le: 24 août 2009 à 18:27:48 »

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Son site personnel: http://www.robertschoch.com/


Biography:

Dr. Robert M. Schoch, a full-time faculty member at the College of General Studies at Boston University since 1984, earned his Ph.D. (1983) in Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. He also holds an M.S. and M.Phil. in Geology and Geophysics from Yale, as well as degrees in Anthropology (B.A.) and Geology (B.S.) from George Washington University.

In the early 1990s, Dr. Schoch stunned the world with his revolutionary research that recast the date of the Great Sphinx of Egypt to a period thousands of years earlier than its standard attribution. In demonstrating that the leonine monument has been heavily eroded by water despite the fact that its location on the edge of the Sahara has endured hyper-arid climactic conditions for the past 5,000 years, Dr. Schoch revealed to the world that mankind’s history is greater and older than previously believed. Dr. Schoch’s latest research, put forth in his newest book, Forgotten Civilization: The Role of Solar Outbursts in Our Past and Future, points to the astronomical cause of the demise of antediluvian civilizations, as well as the scientific and archaeological evidence that supports his conclusions.

Dr. Schoch has been quoted extensively in the media for his work on ancient cultures and monuments across the globe, including Egypt, Turkey, Bosnia, Romania, Wales, England, Scotland, Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Chile (Easter Island), and Japan. His research has been instrumental in spurring renewed attention to the interrelationships between geological and astronomical phenomena, natural catastrophes, and the early history of civilization. Dr. Schoch has appeared on numerous radio and television shows and is featured in the Emmy-winning documentary The Mystery of the Sphinx, which first aired on NBC in 1993. He is a sought-after speaker for national and international conferences.

The author and coauthor of books both technical and popular, Dr. Schoch’s works include Phylogeny Reconstruction in Paleontology (1986), Stratigraphy: Principles and Methods (1989), Voices of the Rocks: A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations (1999), Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America (2003), Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization (2005), and The Parapsychology Revolution: A Concise Anthology of Paranormal and Psychical Research (2008). Dr. Schoch is also the coauthor of an environmental science textbook used in universities across the United States, and he has contributed to numerous magazines, journals, and reviews on geology, parapsychology, and ancient civilizations. His works have been translated into a number of languages and distributed around the world. His most recent book is Forgotten Civilization: The Role of Solar Outbursts in Our Past and Future (2012), published by Inner Traditions.

Dr. Schoch's website is www.robertschoch.com.

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Son profil  au sein de la Boston University

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Faculty Profiles

Robert Schoch

Associate Professor of Natural Science
BA (anthropology), BS (geology), George Washington University; MS (geology & geophysics), MPhil (geology & geophysics), PhD (geology & geophysics), Yale University
schoch@bu.edu
http://www.robertschoch.com/
Research interests: geology, paleontology, evolution, environmental science, ancient Egypt, geoarchaeology, prehistoric/ancient cultures around the world

Robert M. Schoch, professor of natural science at the College of General Studies at Boston University since 1984, earned his PhD in geology and geophysics at Yale University. His interests include geology, paleontology, evolution, environmental science, ancient Egypt, geoarchaeology, and prehistoric/ancient cultures around the world. In 1990, Prof. Schoch won the Peyton Richter Award for interdisciplinary teaching.

E-mail Robert Schoch or visit www.robertschoch.com

Horns, Tusks, & Flippers: The Evolution of Hoofed Mammals, written with Donald Prothero. Using an approach based on cladistics, the authors consider both living and extinct ungulates. This is a much-needed resource for specialists in the fields of paleontology, zoology, ecology, and evoluntionary biology, as well as for general readers interested in learning more about the story of life on earth.

Another recent book is Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids From Lost Egypt to Ancient America.

Written with Robert Aquinas McNally, the book is described as a startling and dramatic new view of our ancient past. We associate pyramids with ancient Egypt, but pyramids are not uniquely Egyptian—and therein lies a great mystery.
Pyramids and pyramid-like structures can be found all over the globe, built by cultures that span vast distances of geography and time. They appear in the ancient African kingdom of Kush, along the Nile ... in Mesopotamia and Sumeria ... in England and Ireland ... in India and throughout Southeast Asia ... in ancient China ... in Peru’s coastal and Andean regions ... in the ancient Olmec and Mayan realms of southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, and El Salvador ... in pre-Columbian Illinois... and elsewhere.

How can it be that a form as distinctive as the pyramid was built in such widely separated locales? Was it merely coincidence? Or was there another force at work?

In “Voyages of the Pyramid Builders” Boston University professor Robert M. Schoch—one of the world’s preeminent geologists in recasting the date of the Great Sphinx—suggests that there was, indeed, another force at work.

In his eye-opening book, Dr. Schoch argues that these far-flung pyramids share a common ancestor long lost to history: a primordial pyramid-building civilization that once navigated the seas and spread its way of life around the globe.

Meticulously researched and dramatically written, Voyages of the Pyramid Builders lays out, step by step, a fascinating new theory of how the Old World and the New World met:

Evidence that the Egyptian pyramids at Giza (or portions of them) and certain associated structures were built earlier than conventionally believed
The significance of the striking similarities between pyramid cultures in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, despite the long distances of land and sea between
The rituals, beliefs, and stories that underlie the pyramids
How ancient peoples emigrated from the Old World into the New World
How pyramid builders entered the New World from the west and influenced the rising civilizations of Central and South America
How the pyramid builders sailed
A theory that ancient peoples may have migrated across vast distances in response to catastrophic encounters with comets
The possible existence of a lost pyramid-building civilization in the period before 3,500 B.C., the generally accepted date for humankind’s earliest taste of civilization
What it means to know that the high civilizations of our planet may have been interconnected for much longer than we imagined.
Voyages of the Pyramid Builders also includes a special appendix, “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza,” in which Dr. Schoch provides his most recent and persuasive evidence that the Sphinx is much older than we think.
For anyone who is interested in ancient Egypt, past cultures, prehistory, early migrations, paradigm shifts, and the origins of civilization, Voyages of the Pyramid Builders is a groundbreaking reinterpretation of how we understand our ancient past.

Professor Schoch has written previously about ancient civilization. Here are some comments from the jacket of Voices of the Rocks:

Could the Egyptian Sphinx have been built many centuries earlier than conventional history would have us believe? Could the great natural disasters that propelled the evolution of life on Earth have played a dominant role as well in the rise and fall of civilizations? Could Earth have been home to civilizations far greater in number—and far older—than orthodox researchers have suspected? In Voices of the Rocks, Dr. Robert Schoch examines these and other crucial questions about our past and shows how the answers can guide us in the future.

In 1990, Robert Schoch, a scientist and tenured university professor, traveled to Egypt and conducted geological testing to evaluate the accepted date for the construction of the Great Sphinx of Giza. His research revealed that the Sphinx is actually thousands of years older than previously supposed, a discovery that upended the standard history of ancient Egypt.

Following the intellectual trail uncovered by his redating of the Sphinx, Schoch became convinced that we are in the midst of a profound scientific paradigm shift. The predominant notion that our species inhabits a slow-changing, steady-state planet is falling by the wayside. Instead, we are coming to see that the history of Earth, all living beings, and human civilizations comprises a series of stops and starts, in which equilibrium abruptly ends during a sudden severe catastrophe like the extraterrestrial impact that initiated the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteors, asteroids, and comets are only one potential source of such disasters, which also include shifts in Earth’s axis, movements of the continents, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

According to Dr. Schoch, Earth’s long, catastrophic history has obscured and obliterated evidence of lost civilizations. But the traces remain for those who know where to look and what to look for. At its core, Voices of the Rocks is the story of Schoch’s own search, his fascinating discoveries, and the warnings we must heed if we wish to survive whatever catastrophes the future has in store for us.

Dr. Schoch has been quoted extensively in the media for his work on the Sphinx, and was featured on “The Mystery of the Sphinx,” hosted by Charlton Heston.

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I have written and edited popular and trade books, technical books, textbooks, and anthologies. To see one of my textbooks, as well as some of my technical works, go to the Paleontology & The Environment page of this Website. I have also written forewords for various books and had my work included in anthologies, such as the DarkLore series (see below). Below are introductions to some of my publications.

The first three books listed here form a trilogy of sorts that I produced with Robert Aquinas McNally. In order of publication they are Voices of the Rocks (1999), Voyages of the Pyramid Builders (2003), and Pyramid Quest (2005).



Pyramid Quest:



The focus of Pyramid Quest is the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt. I discuss the physical structure of the Great Pyramid and various theories and interpretations as to why it was built and when. Among other things, I believe that the nineteenth century British astronomer Richard Proctor may have been correct when he hypothesized that the base or lower portion of what was to become the Great Pyramid served as an astronomical observatory before the superstructure was built during Fourth Dynasty Old Kingdom times.



Voyages of the Pyramid Builders:


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Voyages of the Pyramid Builders discusses pyramids around the globe, using this as an entrée to discuss the issue of transoceanic contact in ancient (pre-Columbian) times. After critically analyzing the evidence, I have come to the conclusion that there was contact across both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in ancient times. In Voyages I also discuss the impacts and close flybys of comets in historic and prehistoric times that may have affected early civilizations and perhaps spurred long-range migrations. I also discuss the end of the last Ice Age, the rising sea levels at that time, and the origins of civilization. Voyages includes an appendix titled “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza.”



Voices of the Rocks:




The focus of Voices of the Rocks is stated succinctly in the subtitle: A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations. In this book I discuss such topics as Plato’s Atlantis, pole shifts, the Piri Reis map, neo-catastrophism, encounters with comets, the Yonaguni underwater structure, and my work on the age of the Great Sphinx.



The Parapschology Revolution:




The Parapsychology Revolution is an anthology that I put together with Logan Yonavjak. We discuss the serious scientific studies of the paranormal and include selections from fourteen seminal papers, 1886 through 2007, by major figures in the field, plus 100 pages of commentary. For more about my interest in this fascinating field, go to the Parapsychology page on this Website.



The Origin Map:

http://www.robertschoch.com/images/books/originmapcover.jpg


The Origin Map is a groundbreaking book by Dr. Thomas G. Brophy in which he discusses his work on the Nabta Playa, southern Egypt, and the Giza Plateau. I wrote the foreword and John Anthony West wrote the afterword.



The Mystery of the Sphinx:




The Mystery of the Sphinx is a DVD version of the Emmy winning NBC documentary that first aired in 1993. Hosted by Charlton Heston, it tells the basic story of my work on the Great Sphinx (and yes I am featured in it).

 

DarkLore:



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DarkLore is an anthology series edited by Greg Taylor and published by Daily Grail Publishing. So far three volumes have been published. I have an article titled “Life with the Great Sphinx: Some Personal Reflections” in Volume 1, and an article titled “The Mountain of God: Investigating an ancient site which may link Israel, Moses and Egypt” in Volume 3.
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titilapin2

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Re : En construction: John Anthony West, Robert Schoch et le Sphinx
« Réponse #7 le: 24 août 2009 à 18:28:17 »

Son histoire sur sa contribution à la problèmatique de l'âge du Sphinx:

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Many people know me best for my work on the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt.




The Great Sphinx sits near the Great Pyramid on the western bank of the Nile, outside of modern Cairo. According to standard Egyptological thinking, the Great Sphinx was carved from the limestone bedrock on the orders of the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Khafre around 2500 B.C.

In 1990 I first traveled to Egypt, with the sole purpose of examining the Great Sphinx from a geological perspective. I assumed that the Egyptologists were correct in their dating, but soon I discovered that the geological evidence was not compatible with what the Egyptologists were saying. On the body of the Sphinx, and on the walls of the Sphinx Enclosure (the pit or hollow remaining after the Sphinx’s body was carved from the bedrock), I found heavy erosional features (seen in the accompanying photographs) that I concluded could only have been caused by rainfall and water runoff. The thing is, the Sphinx sits on the edge of the Sahara Desert and the region has been quite arid for the last 5000 years. Furthermore, various structures securely dated to the Old Kingdom show only erosion that was caused by wind and sand (very distinct from the water erosion). To make a long story short, I came to the conclusion that the oldest portions of the Great Sphinx, what I refer to as the core-body, must date back to an earlier period (at least 5000 B.C., and maybe as early as 7000 or 9000 B.C.), a time when the climate was very different and included more rain.










Many people have said to me that the Great Sphinx cannot be so old, in part because the head is clearly a dynastic Egyptian head and the dynastic period did not start until about 3000 B.C. In fact, if you look at the current Great Sphinx you may notice that the head is actually too small for the body. It is clear to me that the current head is not the original head. The original head would have become severely weathered and eroded. It was later re-carved, during dynastic times, and in the re-carving it naturally became smaller. Thus, the head of the Great Sphinx is not the original head. In fact, the Sphinx may not have originally been a sphinx at all. Perhaps it was a male lion.







To further test the theory of an older Sphinx, we carried out seismic studies around the base of the statue to measure the depth of subsurface weathering. Basically, we used a sledgehammer on a steel plate to generate sound waves that penetrated the rock, reflected, and returned to the surface. This gave us information about the subsurface qualities of the limestone bedrock. When I analyzed the data, I found that the extraordinary depth of subsurface weathering supported my conclusion that the core-body of the Sphinx must date back to 5000 B.C. or earlier.

Was the Great Sphinx Surrounded By a Moat?

According to Robert Temple, a moat theory explains the water weathering of the Sphinx without hypothesizing that it dates back to an earlier period of more rainfall than the present. I will not address his other hypotheses, which I do not find persuasive, that the Sphinx was the jackal [wild dog] Anubis and the face seen on the Sphinx is that of the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Amenemhet II, though I note the original Sphinx has been reworked and the head re-carved.

While in Egypt recently (March 2009) I looked at the Great Sphinx with fresh eyes. I will summarize half a dozen points.

1) The Sphinx Temple (built out of blocks removed from the Sphinx Enclosure when the body of the Sphinx was initially carved) and the Valley Temple to the south show heavy precipitation-induced weathering on their core blocks. These limestone temples were subsequently refurbished with Aswan granite facings during the Old Kingdom. The moat theory cannot explain the nature of the very ancient weathering seen under the Old Kingdom granite veneer.

2) Much heavier surface erosion occurs on the western end of the Sphinx Enclosure, tapering off dramatically toward the eastern end. This is due to ancient rains and the paleohydrology of the area. This erosion is not compatible with pooled water in the enclosure.

3) The highest levels of the middle member strata, seen in the Sphinx Enclosure on the western end, are most severely eroded, as expected from rain. If the moat theory were true, then the lower strata on the eastern end of the Sphinx Enclosure would be most heavily eroded (caused by water being brought in via canals from the Nile), but the opposite is seen.

4) Seismic data demonstrating the depth of weathering below the floor of the Sphinx Enclosure, based on my analyses (calibrated very conservatively), gives a minimum age of at least 7,000 years ago for the core body of the Sphinx. Standing water in the Sphinx Enclosure would not accelerate the depth of weathering below the floor of the enclosure.







5) The vertical fissures observed in the walls of the Sphinx Enclosure show diagnostic signs of having been formed by precipitation and water runoff. They do not show any characteristics that are diagnostic or even suggestive of having been formed by artificial dredging of the Sphinx Enclosure, as Robert Temple suggests.

6) Assuming the argument that the Sphinx sat in a pool, either the water level around the Sphinx was the same as that of the surrounding water table, or the walls and floor of the pool were sealed up and watertight (and any artificial walls, such as on the eastern end, were strong enough to withstand the water pressure). (Note that the current western end of the Sphinx Enclosure is at a much higher elevation than the eastern end [see the figure on page 534 of The Sphinx Mystery by Robert Temple with Olivia Temple, Inner Traditions, 2009], yet clear water erosion is shown at the higher elevations at the western end. Since water seeks its own level, if the water in a supposed moat reached to the height of the western end of the Sphinx Enclosure, then the eastern end as well as the walls along the northern and southern sides must have been built up to a comparable height as the western end. This is independent of whether or not the eastern wall of the enclosure [= western wall of the Sphinx Temple] has a base of natural bedrock or was entirely composed of cut and placed stone.) We know that the ancient water table was well below the level of the floor of the Sphinx Enclosure (or else the Sphinx Temple would have been flooded). The Sphinx Enclosure, if simply carved from the bedrock (as all the evidence suggests) would not have held a deep pool of standing water. The bedrock in the enclosure is highly faulted, and characterized by a karst morphology that would leak like a sieve. The enclosure would need to be fully sealed up (with mortar or cement, perhaps), and there is no evidence of such sealing. If the enclosure had been sealed in such a manner, this would not be compatible with the dredging theory for the vertical fissures. Furthermore, chambers and tunnels under the Sphinx would have been flooded from above if the Sphinx had been sitting in a pool of water, unless the Sphinx Enclosure had been watertight.




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For those further interested, below is a link to an abstract of a technical paper I wrote, entitled "EROSION PROCESSES ON THE GREAT SPHINX AND ITS DATING." I presented the information at a 1999 conference organized by the University of Bergamo.

Robert  Schoch, Boston University, Boston, USA
EROSION PROCESSES ON THE GREAT SPHINX AND ITS DATING

Many recent Egyptologists have attributed the carving of the Great Sphinx of Giza to the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Khafre (Chephren), ca. 2500 B.C. On the basis of a number of lines of geological, seismological, Egyptological, and related evidence, I have come to the conclusion that the structure commonly known as the Great Sphinx was built in stages (originally it may not have even been a Sphinx).  Initial carving of the core body of the Sphinx is estimated to have taken place during the period of approximately 7,000 to 5,000 B.C.  The Sphinx has subsequently been reworked and refurbished many times over the succeeding millennia -- including, probably, during the reign of Khafre.  In particular, the rump or rear of the Sphinx was carved out much later than the core body, and the head of the Sphinx has been recarved.

My geological work suggests that Khafre merely restored the Sphinx. The body of the Sphinx, carved from the local bedrock and thus sitting in the bottom of an artificial hollow (ditch), and the walls of the Sphinx enclosure exhibit well-developed precipitation-induced (p-i) weathering (characterized by a rolling and undulating vertical profile) not typically seen on Old Kingdom Giza Plateau structures (which exhibit primarily wind-induced weathering marked by a more angular profile with soft layers removed by wind abrasion) also excavated from the Mokattam limestone.  This deep p-i weathering of the Sphinx is interpreted as predating the current arid regime of the area, and thus indicates that the body of the Sphinx predates Old Kingdom times by perhaps several millennia.  Though we continue to refine our knowledge of the details of the paleoclimatic history of the Giza Plateau over the last 10,000 years, we already know enough to associate certain dominant modes of weathering with certain parts of that climatic history. Portions of the Sphinx predate Old Kingdom times. The temples adjacent to the Sphinx are built of limestone coreblocks taken from the ditch quarried out to form the body of the Sphinx.  These coreblocks are faced with Aswan granite attributed to Khafre, but the coreblocks were already deeply weathered when the granite facing was originally applied.  The first of several ancient repair campaigns to the weathered body of the Sphinx was done with typical Old Kingdom style masonry, but the core body of the Sphinx was already deeply weathered when this earliest repair work was carried out (see Robert M. Schoch, 1992, KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 52-59, 66-70; Robert M. Schoch with Robert Aquinas McNally, 1999, VOICES OF THE ROCKS, New York: Harmony Books).  Corroborative evidence includes low-energy seismic refraction data that records up to 100\% deeper weathering below the original floor of the Sphinx enclosure as compared to weathering seen in the identical limestones in an area presumably quarried during Khafre's time in the rear of the Sphinx enclosure. Seismic investigations have also uncovered a series of cavities or chambers under the Sphinx (see Thomas Dobecki and Robert M. Schoch, 1992, Geoarchaeology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 527-544).

For those still further interested, here are links to more information on the seismic data and the geological data [cf post suivant ].
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GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE PERTAINING TO THE AGE OF THE GREAT SPHINX
« Réponse #8 le: 24 août 2009 à 18:29:51 »

GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE PERTAINING TO THE AGE OF THE GREAT SPHINX

This article was written in 1999-2000 and published in slightly modified form in 2002/2003, In Emilio Spedicato and Adalberto Notarpietro, editors, New Scenarios on the Evolution of the Solar System and Consequences on History of Earth and Man, Proceedings of the Conference, Milano and Bergamo, June 7-9th, 1999, Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Quaderni del Dipartmento di Matematica, Statistica, Informatica ed Applicazion, Serie Miscellanea, Anno 2002, N. 3, pp. 171-203.

by Dr. Robert M. Schoch © 1999-2000

ABSTRACT

Many recent Egyptologists have attributed the carving of the Great Sphinx of Giza to the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Khafre (Chephren), ca. 2500 B.C. However, on the basis of a number of lines of geological, seismological, Egyptological, and related evidence, I have come to the conclusion that the structure commonly known as the Great Sphinx was built in stages (originally it may not have even been a Sphinx). Initial carving of the core body of the Sphinx is estimated to have taken place during the period of approximately 7,000 to 5,000 B.C. The Sphinx has subsequently been reworked and refurbished many times over the succeeding millennia -- including, probably, during the reign of Khafre. In particular, the rump or rear of the Sphinx was carved out or recarved much later than the core body, and the head of the Sphinx has been recarved.

My geological work suggests that Khafre merely restored the Sphinx. The body of the Sphinx, carved from the local bedrock and thus sitting in the bottom of an artificial hollow (ditch or enclosure), and the walls of the Sphinx enclosure exhibit well-developed precipitation-induced (rainfall runoff) weathering, erosion, and degradation (characterized by a rolling and undulating vertical profile) not typically seen on Old Kingdom Giza Plateau structures (which exhibit primarily wind-induced weathering marked by a more angular profile with soft layers removed by wind abrasion) also excavated from the Mokattam limestone. This deep precipitation-induced weathering of the Sphinx is interpreted as predating the current arid regime of the area, and thus indicates that the body of the Sphinx predates Old Kingdom times by perhaps several millennia. Though we continue to refine our knowledge of the details of the paleoclimatic history of the Giza Plateau over the last 10,000 years, we already know enough to associate certain dominant modes of weathering with certain parts of that climatic history. Portions of the Sphinx predate Old Kingdom times.

The so-called Sphinx Temple, located just east of the Great Sphinx, is built of limestone coreblocks taken from the ditch quarried out to form the body of the Sphinx. These coreblocks were faced with Aswan granite attributed to Khafre, but the coreblocks were already deeply weathered when the granite facing was originally applied. The same scenario may be true for the so-called Valley Temple just south of the Sphinx Temple. The first of several ancient repair campaigns to the weathered body of the Sphinx was done with typical Old Kingdom style masonry, but the core body of the Sphinx was already deeply weathered when this earliest repair work was carried out. Corroborative evidence for an older Sphinx includes low-energy seismic refraction data that records up to 100% deeper weathering below the original floor of the Sphinx enclosure as compared to weathering seen in the identical limestones in an area presumably quarried during Khafre's time in the rear of the Sphinx enclosure.

INTRODUCTION

The Great Sphinx, carved out of limestones of the Eocene Mokattam Formation, standing 66 feet (20 meters) high and 240 feet (73 meters) long, sits on the edge of the Giza Plateau (just west of Cairo, Egypt) east of the three great pyramids. Most recent Egyptologists have attributed the carving of the Great Sphinx to the time of the Old Kingdom Fourth Dynasty Pharaoh Khafre (Chephren), approximately 2500 B.C. by various standard chronologies. In addition the so-called Sphinx Temple (sitting directly in front of the Great Sphinx) and Valley Temple (on the Sphinx's right side) are also attributed to Khafre (Lehner, 1992b, 1997).

For many years the independent Egyptologist John Anthony West (see West, 1979, 1987, 1989, 1993a), based on the work of the late R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz (see Schwaller, 1982), has promulgated an interesting hypothesis: that the Great Sphinx of Giza may be older than its traditional attribution. Primarily on the basis of weathering and erosional features seen on the Great Sphinx and its associated temples, as compared to weathering seen on other structures attributed to the Fourth Dynasty, West suggested that the Sphinx may predate the Fourth Dynasty. West contacted me concerning his hypothesis in 1989, and although I was extremely skeptical of his ideas I did agree to look into it from a geological perspective. Beginning during the summer of 1990 West and I began to research this problem in earnest, including several expeditions to Egypt specifically to look at the evidence bearing on the age of the Great Sphinx (see Schoch, 1992a, 1992b, 1992c, 1992d, 1992e, 1993a, 1993b, 1994a, 1994b, 1995a, 1995b, 2000; Schoch with McNally, 1999, 2000; Schoch and West, 1991; West, 1993a, 1993b; see also Moore, 1992, and Payn, 1992).

SUMMARY OF GEOLOGICAL AND FIELD EVIDENCE
BEARING ON THE AGE OF THE SPHINX

L'étude étant trop longue, je vous laisse la découvrir sur le site:

Lapin



Source
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Redating the Sphinx by David P. Billington, Jr. - A Prehistoric Sphinx?
« Réponse #9 le: 24 août 2009 à 19:52:39 »

Pour faire le lien entre les travaux de John Antony West/ Robert Schoch d'un côté et de l'autre le courant officiel (Zahi Hawass et Mark Lerner) d'un point vue géologique, je vous invite à découvrir ce site de David P. Billington, Jr.
Un seul chapitre est présenté ici, car il nous permet de comprendre les trois strates géologiques entrainant des fragilités différentes (érosion par ex.) sachant qu'elles ne sont pas horizontales pour compliquer le sujet.

Voici les autres chapitres proposés:

Redating the Sphinx: A Prehistoric Sphinx? (le seul traité ici)
Redating the Sphinx: Geological Criticisms
Redating the Sphinx: Archaeological Criticisms
Redating the Sphinx: An Early Dynastic Sphinx?
Redating the Sphinx: The Sphinx Debate of 2000
Redating the Sphinx: The Continuing Controversy

Redating the Sphinx: Reflections on the Geology
Redating the Sphinx: Reflections on the Archaeology
Redating the Sphinx: Tentative Conclusions

Redating the Sphinx: References and Links for Further Study


Lapin


Redating the Sphinx by David P. Billington, Jr.  - A Prehistoric Sphinx?
Copyright 1996. Updated February 2008.





The Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt, is the largest and most famous sculpture in the world. Scholars have traditionally attributed the monument to the Egyptian King Khafra, who ruled from 2558 to 2534 BCE. In the early 1990s, the writer John Anthony West and geologist Robert Schoch claimed a prehistoric date for the Sphinx. In the late 1990s, engineering geologist Colin Reader proposed, less radically, that the Sphinx was only a few hundred years older than its conventional date. These earlier dates have provoked controversy, particularly the prehistoric one.

Since 1996, this website has tried to provide an overview of the key articles and books related to the Sphinx age debate. The website was hosted originally by Leonardo Internet (www.leonardo.net/davidpb). It moved a couple of years later to America Online (members.aol.com/davidpb4) and now resides both on my domain name site (www.davidpbillington.net) and on my America Online site.
Copyright 1996. Updated February 2008.

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The Sphinx


Fig. 2.1. View of the Sphinx with Khafra Pyramid in background. Courtesy and copyright of John Bodsworth.
 
Scholars divide ancient Egyptian civilization into six periods: the Predynastic (the ten centuries before 3050 BCE), the Early Dynastic (3050-2613), the Old Kingdom (2613-2180), the Middle Kingdom (2040-1783), the New Kingdom (1550-1070), and the Late Dynastic (1070-332). Brief intermediate periods followed the Old and Middle Kingdoms.

The traditional creator of the Sphinx, Khafra, belonged to the Fourth Dynasty (2613-2494 BCE), the first of the two dynasties that ruled the Old Kingdom. His father Khufu built the first of the three large pyramids at Giza, and Khafra's son Menkaura built the smaller third one. In recent years, the attribution of the Sphinx to Khafra has been questioned by some Egyptologists. The German scholar Rainer Stadelmann has concluded from a study of the Sphinx head that the monument was carved by Khafra's father, Khufu.[1] Other scholars defend the Khafra attribution. Mainstream scholars all agree, however, that the Sphinx dates to the Fourth Dynasty.

The Sphinx belongs to the Giza necropolis, which rests on a plateau just west of modern Cairo. The Pyramids of Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaura dominate the site (Fig. 2.2 below). The Sphinx lies at the eastern end of a stone avenue known as the Khafra Causeway. In front of (east of) the Sphinx stand the ruins of a building known as the Sphinx Temple. Adjacent and south of this temple stands a more intact structure known as the Khafra Valley Temple. At the western end of the causeway stand the remains of the Khafra Mortuary Temple, a structure adjacent to the east face of the Khafra Pyramid. Originally, each of the three large pyramids at Giza had a mortuary temple, a causeway, and a valley temple. The valley temples were close to the ancient bank of the Nile river.


Fig. 2.2. Diagram of the Giza necropolis showing the Pyramids of Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaura, with associated temples and causeways. The Sphinx is to the right. Drawing is not to scale and only the surviving portions of the causeways are indicated.

The Sphinx stands in an excavated hollow known as the Sphinx enclosure (Fig. 2.3 below). The statue is 240 feet long and takes the form of a recumbent lion with a human head 66 feet high.



Fig. 2.3. The Sphinx and its temples.

Two heavily eroded walls define the southern and western perimeter of the Sphinx enclosure (indicated by light green and light blue shading above). The walls follow the dip of the plateau. A heavily eroded northern wall only half as high in elevation (indicated by green shading above) sets apart the northern terrace, an area that was not excavated as far down as the floor on which the Sphinx stands. A narrow shelf of the terrace extends behind the Sphinx below the western enclosure wall.

The Sphinx Temple and the Khafra Valley Temple occupy a floor two and one-half meters lower than the floor on which the Sphinx stands. Along the southern side of the Khafra Valley Temple stand what appear to be the remains of a low enclosure wall (indicated by olive green shading). A northern perimeter wall may have been planned or built but no longer stands; the Sphinx Temple now occupies the site. The remains of a New Kingdom temple, oriented northeast by southwest, lie on the northern terrace above the northwest corner of the Sphinx Temple.

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Geology of the Sphinx

Geologically, the Giza plateau is part of a body of limestone known as the Mokkatam Formation. The plateau was originally under water in Eocene times and the rock solidified from the remains of corals and other organic remains that settled on the bottom. The plateau today dips from the northwest to the southeast. The precise angle at the Sphinx is unclear but appears to lie between 2.5 and 5 degrees.

The monument and its enclosure cut across three beds of limestone (Figs. 2.4a and 2.4b below). The head consists of a harder limestone bed called the Akhet Member or Member III. The head may have been an outcrop standing above the original plateau or it may be the surviving rock of a layer that was removed to provide stone for the Khufu and Khafra Pyramids. The main body of the Sphinx was excavated from a weaker limestone bed called the Setepet Member or Member II. Another harder bed, the Rosetau Member or Member I, covers most of the floor and some of the lower body, rising to four meters on the rump and descending as it proceeds to the front.[2]



Fig. 2.4a. Three bedrock layers of the Sphinx (front view).


Fig. 2.4b. Three bedrock layers of the Sphinx (side view).

The Sphinx and the enclosure walls have eroded over time. The Member I and Member III rock show comparatively less damage than the Member II rock, which displays severe erosion. Some of the weaker Member II strata have eroded several feet back, leaving horizontal rolls of slightly harder rock that protrude from the Sphinx and its walls (Fig. 2.5 below). These rolls are incised by vertical or diagonal joints (fractures) that have widened into fissures. A significant natural fracture, called the major fissure, transects the Sphinx body in a direction roughly NNW by SSE and separates the rear third of the body from the rest. The fissure continues across the enclosure floor to the south wall (drawn in Fig. 2.3 above).



Fig. 2.5. Eroded strata on the Sphinx in the 1930s. The barrier walls to the west and north of the monument have been taken down since then. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

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Conservation Research

A growing concern over the deterioration of the monument has led to recent studies of how it has weathered.

Gauri, K. Lal, Deterioration of the Stone of the Great Sphinx, The ARCE Newsletter, No. 114 (1981), pp. 35-47.

In 1979, Dr. Mark Lehner of the American Research Center in Egypt and Dr. K. Lal Gauri, director of the Stone Conservation Laboratory at the University of Louisville in Kentucky, USA, mapped the surface of the Sphinx. Gauri also removed rock samples for laboratory analysis to determine how the monument was deteriorating. He concluded that the Sphinx was slowly losing mass from a combination of weathering factors, including erosion by wind-blown sand and occasional rainfall. The primary agent of weathering, according to Gauri, was a process known as salt exfoliation.

Moisture can dissolve natural salts present in the pores of rock. When moistened salts close to the rock surface dry out in the heat of the day, they crystallize and expand inside the pores. In rock with larger pores, salt crystals do not press as severely against the pore walls. In rock with smaller pores, however, the pressure against the pore walls is more severe, weakening the surface stone. Wind and rainfall cause the weakened stone to flake off or wash away. The process then continues on freshly exposed rock. Gauri believed that subsurface groundwater seeping upward into the rock was the source of moisture, weathering the Sphinx from the inside out.

Each of the three limestone beds on the Sphinx subdivides into narrower horizontal strata. In his 1979 study, Gauri identified these strata and the distribution of pore sizes between them, and he matched these to corresponding strata on the south wall of the enclosure. He documented how strata with smaller pore sizes alternated with strata characterized by larger ones. Although overall porosity and mineral composition also played a role in how they weathered, the strata that had weathered back more severely were mainly those with smaller pore sizes.

Charles Selwitz, "Deterioration of the Great Sphinx: An Assessment of the Literature," Antiquity, Vol. 64, No. 245 (December 1990), pp. 853-859.

Selwitz reported a range of studies, most carried out since the early 1980s, that also identified salt exfoliation as the principal cause of present-day weathering to the Sphinx. Selwitz noted that atmospheric moisture could also cause it. Even in an arid desert climate, there is enough moisture in the air to form condensation (dew) on exposed rock every morning, mobilizing salts in the rock. As this moisture evaporates, the salts expand and cause flaking. The climate of the twentieth century, aggravated by air pollution, may be intensifying the process of exfoliation at Giza from atmospheric effects. In addition to rain and wind-blown sand, Selwitz noted the damaging effects over time of earthquakes and the thermal effects of daily heating and cooling.

Notes

1. Rainer Stadelmann, "The Great Sphinx of Giza," in Zahi Hawass, ed., Egyptology at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century: Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, 2000 (American University in Cairo Press, Cairo and New York, 2003), pp. 464-469.

2. The stratification of the Sphinx used here was proposed by K. Lal Gauri in "Geologic Study of the Sphinx," The ARCE Newsletter, No. 127 (1984), pp. 24-43. The illustrations in Figs. 2.3a and 2.3b are my own and are not exact or drawn to scale. ARCE stands for American Research Center in Egypt.



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REPONSE A L'ETUDE GEOLOGIQUE DU SPHINX Vestiges d'une Civilisation Perdue ?
« Réponse #10 le: 24 août 2009 à 19:53:13 »

REPONSE A L'ETUDE GEOLOGIQUE DU SPHINX Vestiges d'une Civilisation Perdue ?
par ZAHI HAWASS & MARK LEHNER

Traduit par Jean-Pierre Lastrajoli©


L'auteur John Anthony West et le géologue de l'Université de Boston Robert Schoch soutiennent que l’érosion des couches du Membre II indique que le Sphinx a été construit entre 5.000 et 7.000 av. JC.
 
Si des égyptologues ont tendance à ignorer West et Schoch, c’est parce que tous deux ignorent principalement les témoignages de la société égyptienne de l’Ancien Empire qui entourent le Sphinx, concluant que le monument doit être le vestige d'une civilisation beaucoup plus ancienne, par ailleurs inconnue en archéologie.

Ils n'expliquent pas comment leur civilisation perdue a disparu du passé archéologique, ni comment la société de l’Ancien Empire de Kheops, Khephren et leur cohorte est si abondamment représentée dans ce passé. Ils n'expliquent non plus ce qui est arrivé à cette civilisation disparue pendant les milliers d'années entre leurs mystérieux édificateurs du Sphinx et l’Ancien Empire (2575-2134 av. JC).
Mis à part ces problèmes, le cas de West-Schoch est boiteux sur les détails qu'ils citent à propos de l'érosion du Sphinx.

Au cours du projet du Sphinx, de l'American Research Center en Egypte[/b] [ARCE], nous avons identifié, dans nos dessins, les couches du Membre II, en donnant à chacune un numéro (et un chiffre romain pour les subdivisions) ; par exemple, Ii dénote le fond doux, IIi le sommet dur de la première couche du Membre II au-dessus du Membre I.


Les géologues Thomas Aigner et Lal Gauri ont étudié ces couches. Gauri a analysé des échantillons de leurs surfaces, au Stone Conservation Laboratory à l'Université de Louisville, afin de comprendre le mécanisme suivant lequel les couches s’érodaient, un processus qui a laissé au sommet un profil de saillies arrondies et au fond de chaque couche de profonds renfoncements.
Les bases des couches les plus basses (Ii, IIi et IIIi), qui sont les plus renfoncées, sont si tendres qu’à des endroits (tels que le côté intérieur de la patte avant gauche) vous pouvez émietter la pierre du bout de vos doigts.
La surface des couches plus dures et saillantes s’écaille constamment par grands morceaux, comme des pommes chips géantes. Une forte rafale de vent envoie ces écailles cliquetantes de l’autre côté de la surface en pierre du Sphinx, après quoi plus d’écailles apparaissent sur la surface.
En 1978, lorsque nous avons effectué le premier nettoyage approfondi autour de la base du Sphinx, depuis que, à la fin des années 1920 et 1930, "la poussière" du Sphinx de ces chips désagrégées s'était accumulée autour de la base de la poitrine et les murs de roche de la fosse.
Aux endroits, le long du bord supérieur du dos du Sphinx, où les restaurateurs de 1926 ont versé le ciment gris dans les fentes et fissures, la pierre d'enceinte s’est écaillée plus encore, laissant le ciment en saillie.

Tandis que les géologues et restaurateurs ne peuvent pas s’accorder sur la cause de ce constant dépouillement de la surface du Membre II, ou sur les remèdes à apporter, chacun peut voir que cette érosion progresse quotidiennement.
Schoch est conscient que si la même détérioration rapide s’est produite dans l'antiquité, il n’est pas nécessaire de reculer l'origine du Sphinx à 5.000 ans av. JC. Les 1.100 ans entre Khephren et la première restauration importante, sous la 18ème Dynastie, ou même la moitié de ce temps, aurait suffit pour éroder le Membre II dans les profonds renfoncements derrière la Phase II de la maçonnerie de restauration.

Dans la version intégrale du Mystère du Sphinx, une production vidéo sur l'hypothèse de West-Schoch, relatée par Charlton Heston, Schoch esquive cette question : "mais l’érosion que je vois," dit-il, "est l’érosion antique... que nous voyions dans des réparations antiques, n’a rien à voir, et c’est un assortiment d’un ensemble de preuves différent de l’érosion moderne."

Schoch cite la pollution et "les pluies acides" comme des causes possibles pour l’érosion plus rapide, mais n'offre aucune donnée appuyant cette assertion. Étant donné que nous nous occupons des processus d’érosion (vent ou pluie) sur les mêmes couches de calcaire avec les mêmes qualités intrinsèques, l’érosion antique et moderne sur le Sphinx sont, en grande partie, blanc bonnet et bonnet blanc.

La roche des Membres I et II est aussi traversée par beaucoup de fractures ou joints, érodés par l'eau sous la surface créant des fissures. Celles-ci s’étendent dans la roche sur beaucoup de yards. Quand les joints se croisent près de la surface du Sphinx, ils isolent des morceaux de la taille d’un gros bloc qui tomberont finalement du corps s’ils restent sans soutien.
C'est précisément pourquoi le gros morceau de trois tonnes est tombé de l'épaule sud en 1988. De telles fractures arrivent partout sur le Plateau de Gizeh et ont été probablement créées aux périodes géologiques post-Eocène, où des forces régionales tectoniques ont soulevé la formation à Gizeh.

L'eau souterraine a dissous le calcaire le long des joints pour créer des canaux sous la surface et des cavités. Quand les carriers Egyptiens ont exploité la fosse du Sphinx, ils ont dû faire face à ces fissures et cavités. La plus grande et la plus problématique de celles-ci passe par la taille et creuse de plus de trois pieds le sommet du dos. Elle s’étend verticalement sur 40 pieds entiers du corps du lion et pénètre dans le sol du Membre I.
La Fissure Principale, comme nous l'appelons, est formée d'une série de joints plus petits, lesquels traversent cette partie de la formation géologique et s’étendent ensembles jusqu’au Sphinx. Elle peut être aisément retrouvée des deux côtés du Sphinx et à travers le mur de la fosse sud.

Sur certaines des photographies de West-Schoch, nous voyons West debout à l'intérieur de l'ouverture d'une des plus grandes fissures, dans les murs de la fosse du Sphinx.
Il voudrait nous faire croire que c'est un élément principal d’une preuve de l'érosion par l'eau de pluie qui est survenu après la création du sphinx. Nous sommes apparemment supposés croire que les autres joints sont aussi des particularités superficielles créées par les torrents d'eau de pluie se répandant sur les côtés du Sphinx et dans sa fosse.
Dans le Mystère, il y a un graphique des couches du Sphinx entièrement vierges de toute fissure verticale. L'eau de pluie coule alors sur le bord du mur de roche et creuse de ravines verticales, suggérant comment les fissures ont été créées.

En fait, les joints existaient dans la roche, longtemps avant que les carriers antiques n’aient jamais modelé le Sphinx et sa fosse. Que le scénario de télévision puisse avoir l’air convainquant, témoigne plus du pouvoir du graphisme vidéo animé que de la réalité de base.

Schoch est conscient des études techniques qui discutent comment ces fissures ont été formées – il les cite dans ses articles. Mais dans l’intégralité du Mystère, il montre une fissure sur le mur sud de la fosse du Sphinx, "clairement formée par l'eau courant jusqu’au bas du mur, attaquant les points faibles."

Ensuite, Schoch et West montrent la façade de la tombe de Debehen, qui vécut sous la 4ème Dynastie. Ils prétendent qu'elle a été taillée, ainsi que Charlton Heston le lit sur son téléprompteur, à partir d’"exactement les mêmes couches que le Sphinx," et que la façade est érodée par le vent.
La preuve, apparemment, en est l'angle pointu entre les couches saillantes plus dures et les renfoncements plus tendres. Schoch et West trouvent chronologiquement significatif que la tombe ait été érodée par le vent, prouvé par un profil angulaire, tandis que le Sphinx (déclarent-ils) a été érodé par la pluie, ce que démontre le profil arrondi.

Ainsi, leur théorie d’une civilisation perdue repose, en fin de compte, sur l'angularité. Schoch, cependant, ne montre jamais d’autres exemples d’érosion par le vent ou la pluie, afin que nous puissions juger par comparaison les profils de Gizeh.

S'il l’avait fait, nous serions alors intéressés de savoir comment il établit les taux d'érosion, afin de démontrer que le Sphinx a été construit entre 5.000 et 7.000 av. JC. Même si le Sphinx a été érodé par la pluie, Schoch ne démontre jamais pourquoi les ondées pendant les 4.500 dernières années ne seraient pas suffisantes pour arrondir les coins.

Nous avons été pris sous nombre d'averses, pendant notre travail à Gizeh au cours des 20 dernières années. Schoch doit présenter plus de preuves que quelques photographies et animations vidéos pour affirmer que ces des modèles différents d'érosion sont chronologiquement significatifs.
S’attacher simplement "à la morphologie de la roche" - c'est-à-dire "ce qu’elle paraît" - n'est pas suffisant pour nous convaincre des énormes ramifications que West et Schoch attachent à cette distinction.


L’autre problème dans la comparaison de Schoch, entre le Sphinx et exactement les mêmes couches dans la tombe de l’Ancien Empire, concerne l'emplacement des deux. Le Sphinx repose sur la partie la plus basse du plateau, à environ 63 pieds au-dessus du niveau de la mer et non loin de l’humide flot hostile du Nil qui se trouve aujourd'hui à environ 55 à 59 pieds au-dessus du niveau de mer.
Schoch ne dit pas à l'auditoire que ces couches de la tombe de Debehen sont beaucoup plus hautes et plus sèches, à 458 yards (plus de quatre terrains de football) dans le désert à l'ouest-sud-ouest du Sphinx, à une élévation entre 154 et 206 pieds au-dessus du niveau de mer.

 
Entre le Sphinx et la tombe de Debehen, il y a de nombreuses tombes de taillées dans le roc et, chose significative, une carrière béante en plein air de 250 yards de large, sur laquelle Kheops a probablement pris beaucoup de pierres pour sa pyramide. Etablir une corrélation stratigraphique des couches du Sphinx à la tombe de Debehen n'est pas aussi simple que Schoch, ou le scénario d'Heston, voudrait nous faire croire.
Les couches dans la tombe de Debehen ne sont pas, en fait, les mêmes que celles du Sphinx. Certes, toutes les couches à Gizeh font partie de la formation Mokattam, mais, du fond au sommet de la série, leur qualité varie considérablement.

Commençant au bord de la chaussée de Khephren, qui se situe sur le côté sud de la fosse du Sphinx, on peut suivre les couches du Sphinx vers le sud-ouest. Le sommet de la chaussée est formé par les couches 4 et 5 comme nous les avons numérotés dans le profil du Sphinx. Au sud de la fosse du Sphinx et de la chaussée, la surface offre une pente radicalement vers le sud.
Il est alors possible de suivre les couches du Sphinx en bas de cette pente, en passant par la nécropole de tombes taillées dans le roc à l'ouest, vers Debehen, vous pouvez pister la couche 5 et ensuite la couche 6 (avec quelques trous entre des blocs de la carrière et les tombes)

Passant à l'ouest par cette carrière, qui fut ultérieurement transformée en nécropole de tombes taillées dans le roc, tandis que la surface du terrain s’élève, il devient évident que l'équivalent des couches du cou et de la tête du Sphinx, sont exposées de même que, plus loin à l'ouest, les couches qui se trouvent plus hauts, (c'est-à-dire, plus jeunes), dans la série de Mokattam que la tête du Sphinx.
Plus loin à l'ouest et plus haut en altitude, tout près du glaçage sur le haut du "gâteau des couches" de calcaire, les couches de la tombe Debehen sont plus jeunes, que celles du Membre II du Sphinx, qui se trouve tout au fond.


Schoch néglige aussi de mentionner dans ses présentations publiques le simple fait que des différentes couches de calcaire, comme celle de la tombe Debehen et celle du Sphinx, s’érodent de différentes façons. L'angularité et la rondeur de l’érosion des profils des roches sont dus autant au rythme auquel une couche se dégrade par rapport à une autre qu’aux différents facteurs d’érosion. En fait, entre Debehen et le Sphinx il y a des surfaces de roche de l’Ancien Empire avec à la fois des profils arrondis et angulaires.
Pour Schoch, afin de présenter un argument crédible à propos des modèles d'érosion et la date du Sphinx, quant aux tombes de l’Ancien Empire, il doit offrir plus de preuves que la simple photographie d'une façade de tombe. Son argument doit au moins commencer par une corrélation stratigraphique détaillée qui démontre qu’il ne compare pas des pommes et des oranges.
Tant de facteurs peuvent affecter l'érosion d'une surface en pierre que la seule l'érosion des surfaces n'est pas une bonne base pour la datation de monuments en pierre, ou pour postuler de l'existence d'une civilisation disparue lors d’une quelconque période épipaléolithique ou néolithique.

Le traitement de West et Schoch de la preuve liant le Sphinx au complexe de la pyramide de Khephren est inexact. Ils montrent la construction à deux étapes des temples de Khephren, mais ne citent jamais les études architecturales détaillées de cette sorte de construction à Gizeh.

Il n'y a pas le moindre doute que les grands blocs de calcaire centraux, au milieu des blocs de granit du parement des murs du temple ont été édifiés en même temps. Aussi bien dans le Temple du Sphinx que dans le Temple Funéraire de la Pyramide de Mykérinos, il y a des moments d’arrêt total, où les constructeurs ont laissé le travail incomplet.
 
Même aujourd'hui, vous pouvez voir où une équipe décorait derrière les murs bruts du noyau en calcaire, tandis qu'une autre, travaillant plusieurs yards derrière, posait le parement en granit. Les blocs de calcaire ne sont pas érodés sous le parement de granit intacte du Temple de la Vallée de Khephren. Là où les parements de granit demeurent in situ, la façade originale du bloc en calcaire du noyau est préservée derrière lui.
West et Schoch perçoivent que les murs sud et ouest de la fosse du Sphinx sont érodés plus en haut qu'au fond – l'effet, disent-ils, de l'eau de pluie repoussant une paroi rocheuse qui était à l'origine verticale.

Mais, en regardant l’extrémité orientale du mur sud, où une grande partie de la façade originale est toujours préservée, il est clair que les carriers antiques taillèrent la façade sur cette pente en premier lieu. Quant au mur ouest, West et Schoch semblent s’être embrouillés dans leur propre argument.
Selim Hassan, qui a fouillé autour du Sphinx en 1936, a indiqué que le canal de drainage, le long du côté nord de la chaussée de Khephren, commence dans le coin sud-ouest, à l'arrière de la fosse du Sphinx. Cela suggère que carriers antiques aient constitué celle-ci après la chaussée de Khephren.

Schoch croit cependant que l’argument d'Hassan est anéanti parce que l’arrière de l’enceinte du Sphinx a été creusé par Khephren cinq millénaires après l’époque des mystérieux bâtisseurs du Sphinx. En conséquence, l'arrière du mur ne devrait pas montrer de signe d’érosion pluviale parce que, dans la logique de West-Schoch, ça le ferait remonter à des milliers d'années avant Khephren.
Pourquoi, alors, voyons-nous Schoch dans la vidéo du Mystère caresser ce même arrière du mur de la fosse du Sphinx et le qualifier de parfait exemple classique de ce qui arrive à un mur de calcaire quand vous avez de la pluie y tombant à verse pendant des milliers d'années ?

Le géologue Robert Schoch prétend que l'angularité entre des couches renfoncées et saillantes sur la façade de la tombe de Debehen indique qu'elle a été érodée par le vent. Le profil arrondi du Sphinx, soutient-il, a résulté de l'érosion des eaux et prouve que la sculpture est beaucoup plus ancienne.
Les archéologues croient que la tombe comme le Sphinx ont été taillé sous la 4ème Dynastie (2575-2134 av. JC). La façade de la tombe – à l'origine le côté occidental de la carrière de Kheops, 459 yards à l'ouest du Sphinx et 75 à 141 pieds plus hauts que celui-ci – est taillée plus haut dans le substrat rocheux dans l'ordre géologique des couches que celles du Sphinx.

Les différents profils de l’érosion reflètent les différences dans les propriétés physiques des roches, pas l'âge des monuments. Schoch et West citent les rondeurs des saillies et des renfoncements dans le mur sud de la fosse du Sphinx comme la preuve d'une érosion pluviale, et croient que les fissures dans la roche ont été causées par l'eau de pluie après que le Sphinx ait été taillé.
La plupart des savants sont convaincus que les fractures ont été causées par des forces tectoniques et érodées par l'eau souterraine, longtemps avant que le monument ne fut élevé.

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Incroyable mais... faux Le Sphinx a 15 000 ans
« Réponse #11 le: 24 août 2009 à 19:55:47 »

Nº1519   SEMAINE DU JEUDI 16 DÉCEMBRE 1993



À la Une < Le Nouvel Observateur < Le Sphinx a 15 000 ans
                
Incroyable mais... faux     Le Sphinx a 15 000 ans

Le monstre à tête humaine de Gizeh n'a pas été construit par les Egyptiens de la IVe dynastie mais par les mystérieux Atlantes. Non, ce n'est pas un gag, mais la thèse farfelue de deux chercheurs américains.

Peut-être est-ce le soleil qui cogne un peu trop fort sur le sable. Ou une ultime manifestation de la malédiction des pharaons, allez savoir. Mais à Gizeh, près du Caire, l'esprit a tendance à divaguer plus qu'ailleurs. Les plus grands ont vacillé.

Charles Piazzi Smith, astronome royal d'Ecosse.

Cet homme sérieux avait consacré sa vie à la pyramide de Kheops, examiné le moindre accident de l'architecture des galeries. Pour lui, la Grande Pyramide était une transcription minérale de la Bible. Il avait publié, en 1865, 616 pages de calculs serrés, prenant en compte la moindre encoche de la galerie centrale, pour démontrer que les architectes de la pyramide, hommes à la sagesse immense, avaient tout inscrit dans la pierre, y compris la population de la terre en 1870. Tout, jusqu'à la date du Jugement dernier: le 15 septembre 1936. La date fatidique passa sans manifestation notable. Mais l'absence remarquée de Dieu à l'heure dite n'a pas découragé les amateurs de mystères pyramidaux: on a recensé plus de trois cents livres consacrés à la pyramide de Chéops.

Etrangement, le grand Sphinx de Gizeh, image idéale du mystère, était resté à l'écart de cette agitation. Mais c'en est fini de la tranquillité du monstre à tête humaine qui se prélasse depuis des millénaires à quelques jets de pierre de la Grande Pyramide. Des Américains ont décidé de s'occuper de lui.

Au départ, rien que de très banal. Un écrivain, dramaturge et spécialiste des philosophies ésotériques, comme on dit outre-Atlantique, John Anthony West, tombe par hasard sur le livre écrit par un Alsacien nommé Schwaller de Lubicz.

Schwaller de Lubicz

Lequel a consacré dix-sept ans de sa vie à passer au peigne fin les temples de Louxor dans le but de démontrer que les Egyptiens savaient tout des mathématiques, de l'astronomie, de la médecine, et avaient une exacte et complète compréhension des lois de la Création. Son livre, «le Temple de l'homme», est de ceux qu'un spécialiste des philosophies ésotériques se doit d'avoir sur sa table de chevet et que les égyptologues un peu sérieux considèrent comme pure élucubration.

Thèse de Schwaller: toutes ces connaissances extraordinaires dont les Egyptiens ont bénéficié, il n'est pas possible que ce peuple de paysans les ait acquises comme cela, en quelques décennies. C'est forcément un héritage. Légué par qui? Les soucoupes volantes n'ayant pas encore été inventées à l'époque, Schwaller ne voyait qu'un légataire possible: l'Atlantide, ce royaume légendaire évoqué par Platon et qui fut noyé sous les mers par un des nombreux déluges dont parlent les vieux mythes.

C'est dans ce livre de Schwaller de Lubicz que John Anthony West trouvera son chemin de Damas.
Une remarque que Schwaller avait laissé échapper sans y attribuer apparemment d'importance: le Sphinx présentait des traces d'érosion dues à l'eau. L'Egypte étant aujourd'hui un désert, c'est la preuve, se dit West, que ce grand Sphinx dont les égyptologues s'accordent à dire qu'il a été construit par Khephren, pharaon de la IVe dynastie, vers 2500 avant Jésus-Christ, est en fait beaucoup plus ancien. Qu'il est l'œoeuvre de civilisations qui existaient au temps où le Sahara était encore une grande savane aux pluies abondantes. Et West, qui ne mégote pas, de donner 15 000 ans d'âge au Grand Sphinx de Gizeh...

West réalise vite que tout seul il ne convaincra personne. Alors il va montrer ses photos du site de Gizeh à un tout jeune géologue de l'université de Boston, Robert Schoch. Lequel est troublé et accepte d'accompagner West en Egypte.

Là il vérifie l'existence des fameuses traces d'érosion. Plus prudent que West, il se garde bien pourtant d'évoquer l'Atlantide et ne donne au Sphinx «que» 7000 ans.

Mais plus excitant encore: à l'aide de capteurs sismiques, Schoch découvre qu'il y a de grandes cavités sous le Sphinx. Que recèlent ces cavités? La grande bibliothèque des Atlantes, bien sûr! John Anthony West en est convaincu. Il a prévu une autre expédition scientifique autour du Sphinx en compagnie de Schoch. S'il obtient les autorisations nécessaires, il utilisera de toutes petites caméras qu'on fixe au bout de câbles optiques, semblables à celles qu'emploient les chirurgiens pour regarder à l'intérieur d'un organisme sans l'ouvrir.

West est persuadé de découvrir ainsi les fameux documents. Et de pouvoir les lire: les hiéroglyphes, affirme-t-il, sont apparus trop vite, et sous une forme trop parfaite, pour que les Egyptiens aient eu le temps de les inventer. Encore un legs des Atlantes...

Il a impressionné du monde avec ses belles histoires, le dénommé West. La chaîne américaine NBC vient de lui consacrer une de ses émissions de prestige.  Autour d'un film réalisé par un des hommes de l'équipe de Spielberg. C'est l'acteur Charlton Heston qui présentait l'émission: depuis qu'il a conduit le char de Ben Hur, il est, pour l'Américain moyen, un expert incontournable des choses de l'Antiquité.

John West a moins de succès avec les égyptologues.

Pour eux, ce n'est qu'un illuminé de plus. Et ils en ont vu beaucoup. «Les pyramides ayant épuisé leur mystère, il était fatal que vienne le tour du Sphinx, soupire Pascal Vernus, professeur à l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes. L'histoire des Egyptiens est assez exceptionnelle pour qu'il ne soit pas nécessaire d'en rajouter. C'étaient des gens comme nous, et ils ont réalisé des choses extraordinaires. Ils n'ont pas eu besoin de je ne sais quel mystérieux rayon gravitationnel pour construire leurs pyramides. Au cours des fouilles que j'ai effectuées, on a mis au jour les sépultures d'ouvriers qui ont participé à la construction des pyramides. Leur squelette était déformé: ils avaient tiré trop longtemps des poids trop lourds...»

Certes rien ne prouve avec certitude que Khephren ait été le véritable constructeur du Sphinx. On a parfois attribué le monument à Didoufri, successeur de Kheops. Ce qui vieillirait le Sphinx d'une vingtaine d'années. Sûrement pas de 8000 ans. Tout le monde est d'accord, West et ses fidèles exceptés, pour dire que le Sphinx fut construit là justement parce que les ouvriers qui extrayaient la pierre des pyramides avaient laissé un coin de la carrière inexploité. Un grand bloc de 74 mètres de long sur 20 de hauteur, qui avait vaguement la forme d'un corps de lion. Et ces histoires d'érosion pluviale, ça ne les étonne pas le moins du monde. Car même si ce n'est pas souvent, il pleut en Egypte. Des pluies diluviennes qui remplissent les oueds en quelques minutes, et ravinent tout... y compris le tendre calcaire du Grand Sphinx.

Quant à la théorie de la décadence continue de la civilisation égyptienne qui, selon West et les siens, aurait perdu le savoir reçu en héritage: «Ça ne correspond en rien à la réalité, s'insurge Pascal Vernus. On voit parfaitement la civilisation égyptienne s'installer, progresser à partir de 3000 ans avant notre ère. Il y aura bien une période de décadence; mais elle surviendra des siècles plus tard. Il faut se méfier de cette idéologie de la décadence permanente. C'est un vieux mythe réactionnaire, un archétype de l'inconscient véhiculé par de vieux fous, ou parfois par certains hommes politiques.»

Et puis, et c'est l'argument le plus décisif des égyptologues «classiques», une civilisation capable de sculpter le Sphinx – lequel est muni de tous les attributs d'un pharaon du IIIe millénaire avant Jésus-Christ – aurait laissé d'autres traces derrière elle. Où sont-elles? Objectez tout cela à un homme comme West, et il vous trouvera dans l'instant cinquante réfutations. Quand on a foi en d'aussi belles légendes que celle de l'Atlantide, on ne va pas y renoncer pour les beautés arides d'une histoire mieux vérifiée, mais qui a le défaut de faire moins rêver.
 
Gérard Petitjean
Le Nouvel Observateur
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Re : En construction: John Anthony West, Robert Schoch et le Sphinx
« Réponse #12 le: 24 août 2009 à 21:33:12 »

A votre avis, les spécialistes des théories alternatives sur le Sphinx, l'Egypte, l'Atlantide, est-ce qu'ils s'aiment? Est-ce qu'ils se côtoient?

Les réponses par l'image sur le site CPAK online:


image invalide


We are pleased to announce that the 6th annual “Conference on Precession and Ancient Knowledge” will be held at the University of California Irvine (UCI) in the “Beckman Center” on October 10, 2009. It is a beautiful facility with warm ambiance and first class everything - owned by the National Academy of Sciences. We are honored!

Due to concerns about the economy the 2009 CPAK will be a one-day event, allowing us all to save on hotel costs and reduce the registration price substantially. By compressing the talks and lengthening the day we can almost match the number of speakers of prior years and hold the early registration cost to $150.

We have sent invitations to authors, scientists and researchers in the areas of cutting edge archaeology, anthropology, myth and folklore, archeoastronomy and related fields. Again, our emphasis is on understanding the character, nature and wisdom of ancient cultures. If there is a particular professor or expert in the field that you would like us to invite please let us know ASAP – we want to make this the best conference ever! Most speakers will be new and confirmed by mid 2009.

Once again the event will include poster presentations, a delicious lunch plus morning and afternoon refreshments, as well as free parking and time to mingle with the presenters. Seating this year is very limited (it is a fantastic facility but fewer seats than the UCSD theater) so please sign up early.



Presenter Video Previews



We are exceptionally pleased with the growing caliber of authors, scientists, professors and independent researchers that are willing to go out on an academic limb and participate at CPAK. While some of the ideas put forth may cause a loss of confidence in traditional viewpoints – that’s OK. The links below will connect you to excerpts from prior presentations. We invite you to sample the ideas offered by our presenters.


Graham Hancock, John Anthony West, Robert Bauval, Robert Schoch and Walter Cruttenden


Robert Schoch
A CPAK 2007 Video Presentation
Pre-Dynastic Origins of the Great Sphinx and Other Egyptian Structures, and the Influence of Astronomical Factors (For Example, Comets and Precession) on Ancient Civilizations Dr. Schoch summarizes and expands upon his ongoing research into the Age of the Great Sphinx, including discussion of other structures in Egypt that apparently date back to pre-dynastic times. From there he will address the origins of the Great Pyramid, and how it and other structures may be tied to signs in the heavens. The influences of comets, precession, and other celestial phenomena on early peoples was perhaps more widespread than generally acknowledged.

Books By Robert Schoch

The Parapsychology Revolution: A Concise Anthology of Paranormal and Psychical Research
Voices of the Rocks : A Scientist Looks at Catastrophes and Ancient Civilizations
Pyramid Quest: Secrets of the Great Pyramid and the Dawn of Civilization
Voyages of the Pyramid Builders: The True Origins of the Pyramids from Lost Egypt to Ancient America


John Anthony West
A CPAK 2007 Video Presentation
This triple scholarly sundae briefly recapitulates West's Egypt work to date and introduces important new developments.  His discussion of the dreaded 'A' Word (Atlantis) focuses on a little known scholarly study that should put Atlantis hunting in an altogether new and challenging perspective. The Magical Mystery Topic, if revealed, would no longer be a mystery or magical, but it will be, among other adjectives, controversial, original, incendiary, entertaining and unforgettable.

Books By John Anthony West

Serpent in the Sky: The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt
Mystery of the Sphinx (DVD - Documentary)
Magical Egypt (DVD - Documentary Series)

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About CPAK



What CPAK Is All About

Most history books still teach that about 5000 years ago mankind was a primitive hunter-gatherer incapable of complex thought. Under this paradigm megalithic structures found all over the world were built for sacrificial purposes, to deify a ruler, or to help a society ignorant of the seasons know when to plant its crops. Mankind was thought to be a brutish sort stuck in survival mode, incapable of little more than grunting and groaning. This myopic view is reinforced by misapplied evolutionary theory that requires that anything that came before us must be more primitive.




But the myth and folklore of ancestral people give us a far different story. They speak of a time when mankind walked with the gods and lived in harmony with nature on a pristine Earth. They whisper of a long lost Golden Age, and a celestial driven cycle where the rise and fall of the ages flows like seasons. Most of all, they speak with reverence about the stars and our connection with the heavens.

It has recently been discovered that most megalithic structures (cairns, tombs, henges, etc. around the globe) are astronomically aligned, or positioned to mark the solstices and cardinal points. Huge stones are one of the few things that still stand after several thousand years and these structures bespeak of a worldwide civilization attuned to the heavens - and more. One of our recent presenters at CPAK, scientist John Burke, author of Seed of Knowledge Stone of Plenty, has found that the magnetic polarity of the 66 remaining stones at Avebury are all positioned with their positive poles facing the next one in line – a discovery with huge implications! John took over a thousand readings with a flux magnetometer but how did the Ancients know about such subtle forces? And why did they align them in a pattern similar to a modern particle accelerator? Such discoveries suggest the megalithic builders understood certain electromagnetic properties and utilized them for purposes we have still not discovered.

One theme of CPAK is to look closely at the Great Year, and its mechanism that so fascinated the Ancients; the precession of the equinox. This task was begun by Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Deschend, in their book Hamlet’s Mill. This epic work documents hundreds of bits of myth and folklore from over thirty separate ancient cultures that all seem to tie the rise and fall of man and history to the procession (or rather precession – backward movement) of the stars through the constellations of the zodiac. While these brilliant scholars died before deciphering the reasons for all this interest in precession, they did think it odd that so many cultures would be consumed with a motion that is hardly noticeable in the average lifespan today. They wondered if it had a great purpose.

Modern science tells us precession is an obscure effect due to lunisolar forces acting upon the oblate Earth and has nothing to do with history or the ages of man. At least that is the present theory.

Giorgio commented:

It has lost relevance for our affairs, whereas once it was the only majestic secular motion that our ancestors could keep in mind when they looked for a great cycle, which could affect humanity as a whole. But then our ancestors were astronomers and astrologers. They believed that the sliding of the sun along the equinoctial point affected the frame of the cosmos and determined a succession of world ages under different zodiacal signs. They had found a large peg on which to hang their thoughts about cosmic time, which brought all things in fateful order. Today, that order has lapsed like the idea of the cosmos itself. There is only history, which has been felicitously defined as “one damn thing after another”.

Contrary to modern theories, some ancient myth and iconography, like that of the mysterious Mithraic culture, suggests that the observable of precession (stars moving across sky) is due to our Sun orbiting another star. In a process similar to the Earth orbiting the Sun (which produces seasons) –they see the Sun’s vastly greater orbit producing changing conditions on Earth and a rise and fall in consciousness on a grand scale. The 1960’s lyric “the dawning of the age of Aquarius” is a reference to this ancient belief that as the equinox precesses through the constellations of the zodiac to a certain point, it will once again usher in a higher age. Could there be any truth to this belief? Modern scientists scoff at the very question. Thus the ancient and modern worldviews of precession and its impact on history and consciousness couldn’t be more opposed.

At CPAK we look at this grand idea from every angle: Could precession have another cause and might our Sun have a companion star? If so, what are its mechanics and how might orbital changes in stellar electromagnetic fields affect the Earth’s ionosphere, magnetosphere and consciousness in a cyclical pattern? What does myth say about the higher ages and what evidence do we find to support them? How do we tell time on the Celestial Clock of the ages and where exactly are we now? Are we really at the dawning of greater awareness or a new time? How much did the Ancients really know?

In the standard paradigm of history anomalous artifacts like the Greek Antikythera device (a thousand years before the invention of complex precision gears) or the Baghdad batteries (two thousand years before Volta invented the battery) do not make sense. Likewise, ancient hints of subtle forces whether it is Qigong or Feng Shui in China, or the electromagnetic and electrostatic properties found at Mesoamerican mounds and pyramids, are baffling to the modern mindset. But the ancient idea of a Great Year provides a logical context in which to fit such knowledge and gives meaning to myth and folklore from around the world.

So far our collective efforts show that there appears to have been a relatively advanced civilization all over the globe at a time when our textbooks tell us we were simple hunter-gatherers. The people had in-depth knowledge of geometry, mathematics, celestial motions, efficient and sustainable agriculture, specialized soils still un-reproducible today, plant hybridization, animal husbandry, hydraulics, poetry, music and epic story telling, and of course the ability to build huge carefully engineered structures that aligned to mirror the heavens. More difficult to believe is further evidence that suggests they had fantastic memories and understood principles of subtle energies of which we are still unaware, and quite possibly, telepathy and clairvoyance, or other higher age sciences, we still cannot conceive.

Warning: This conference may address untraditional viewpoints subject to prosecution by the paradigm police. If you work in an untenured position in academia or other learning institution where unorthodox thinking is discouraged we advise you to avoid this event. Just kidding! Come join us and gain a whole new perspective on ancient history - and yourself!

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« Modifié: 15 octobre 2019 à 00:03:56 par Modération »
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titilapin2

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Humour et clin d'oeil: on est tous frères!!!
« Réponse #13 le: 24 août 2009 à 21:58:33 »

Un peu d'humour pour finir sur le combat des idées.

On a vu l'opposition des "légalistes égyptologues" contre les "affreux des théories alternatives" sur l'histoire de l'égypte et pas seulement avec notre Sphinx.

Il est évident que seuls les seconds font de l'argent sur le travail des premiers. N'est-ce pas?

Sans plus attendre, je vous fais découvrir ce qui rassemble régulièrement les uns et les autres pour de lucratives conférences:


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Les experts bien connus:


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Les "autres" tous aussi connus mais théoriquement moins recommandables!


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La preuve par le site (et non ce n'est pas un montage) ;D

Je crois que toute cette polémique (vraie, fausse, organisée) nous permet de rêver et surtout de "doper" le pib de l'Egypte grâce aux touristes ;)
« Modifié: 15 octobre 2019 à 00:04:55 par Modération »
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