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Ozorus

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Autres théories alternatives Egypte (2nd sphinx, ...)
« le: 28 mars 2009 à 12:04:43 »

[justify]Guy Gruais et Guy-Claude Mouny en interview à propos du livre "Le grand secret des pyramides de Gizeh".
Cette interview date de 1993 mais je pense qu'il est bon de faire découvrir le Colonel à ceux qui ne le connaissent pas.
Guy-Claude Mouny est intervenu sur l'antenne de RIM à plusieurs reprises et notamment une fois dans la Vague d'Ovnis sauf erreur de ma part.[/justify]


la suite sur daily


Merci a Introcrate pour les vidéos.
« Modifié: 29 juillet 2013 à 23:24:52 par katchina »
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titilapin2

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Autres théories alternative Egypte (2nd sphinx, ...)
« Réponse #1 le: 25 août 2009 à 00:08:13 »

THEORIE D'UN SECOND SPHINX A GIZEH
Le second Sphinx de Gizeh

 
(picture from the Sphinx Stele)

Traduit par Lastrajoli Jean-Pierre©
admn : lien mort

 L’année 2001 avait débuté avec les spéculations faites par un chercheur égyptien sur l’existence d’un second Sphinx sur le plateau de Gizeh, soulevant un débat parmi les archéologues: 

 (…) Dans sa récente conférence à l'Université Américaine du Caire, l’égyptologue Bassam AL-CHAMMÂ’ a montré qu'une photographie satellite du plateau de Gizeh faisait allusion à l'existence d'une sculpture semblable de taille et de forme à celles d'une créature avec des jambes antérieures allongées.

Sur un site Web ( The Second Sphinx Theory ), AL-CHAMMÂ’ explique en détail sa théorie du "Sphinx II". Il indique que, derrière le temple de vallée, au sud de la chaussée de la pyramide de Khephren, un autre sphinx a été élevé parallèlement à celui qui est visible aujourd'hui. Selon un texte hiéroglyphique, la plus grande partie du Sphinx II a été détruite par un "coup de tonnerre", qui a frappé ce secteur dans les temps anciens.

AL-CHAMMÂ’ base sa théorie sur la croyance des anciens Egyptiens, dans la dualité de la nature et leur utilisation de la symétrie dans leur art et leur architecture pour symboliser l'harmonie. Cette croyance remonte à l'aube de l'histoire pharaonique.

Selon un papyrus trouvé à Héliopolis, dans la mythologie de l’ancienne Egypte, quand Atoum a créé la Terre, il transforma son fils et sa fille en lions, afin de transporter le soleil de l'est à l'ouest, pendant le jour, et de l'ouest à l'est, autour de l'autre côté du monde la nuit.

A partir de là, s’est développé l'idée que les lions protégeaient les creux par lesquels le soleil lève et se couche. Ca pourrait expliquer pourquoi il y a deux rangées parallèles de créatures à tête de bélier, aux entrées des temples de Karnak et Louxor, et pourquoi il pourrait y avoir eu deux sphinx à Gizeh, qui, selon la théorie, est le seul lieu où le soleil se couche entre les pyramides de Khephren et Kheops, gardé par un lion, le sphinx visible. 

La nouvelle preuve, dit AL-CHAMMÂ’, de trouvait dans la Stèle du Rêve mise en place par Thoutmosis IV, entre les pattes antérieures du Sphinx. La stèle représente deux sphinx de tailles semblables. Devant la première statue on voit Thoutmosis portant la couronne de guerre et offrant de l’encens et de l'eau sacrée.

Couronné du némès, le roi est debout devant l’autre sphinx, portant l’eau sacrée et l’aspergeant avec ses mains. Cela démontre que le roi exécutait deux cérémonies différentes d'adoration appropriée à chaque sphinx.

Qu'est-il arrivé à l'autre sphinx ? AL-CHAMMÂ’ suggère que la réponse doive être trouvée dans une stèle en calcaire, qui a été retrouvée à côté du Sphinx et qui est maintenant exposée au Musée Egyptien. Le texte de la stèle dit qu'un coup de foudre a endommagé une partie du sphinx.

Selon la traduction du texte de la stèle par l'archéologue Selim HASSAN, la même foudre a aussi frappé un platane dans le voisinage et Kheops s’est déplacé sur le site pour superviser la réparation.

Ceci met en lumière deux faits ignorés par les archéologues. Premièrement, le coup de foudre a détruit la plus grande partie du sphinx II. Deuxièmement, Kheops a fait effectuer un entretien sur le sphinx. Donc Khephren, qui a succédé à Kheops, n'a pas pu construire le sphinx, ce qui implique qu'il pourrait avoir été sculpté environ il y a 10.000 ans.

AL-CHAMMÂ’ est conscient que les fonctionnaires de l'Autorité des Antiquités Egyptiennes ne veulent pas l'écouter parce qu'il n'est pas un professeur d'université.

En attendant le professeur Mohamed EL-KAHLAWI reconnaît qu'il pourrait y avoir un second sphinx, en raison des principes de dualité dans la religion pharaonique. Il a dit que n'importe quelle théorie est digne de respect tant qu’elle n’est pas infirmée.

L'archéologue Yassin ZEIDAN conteste qu'il y eut deux sphinx, indiquant que les bâtisseurs des pyramides ont fait le sphinx dans un souci d’équilibrer la forme des pyramides. (Manal ABDUL AZIZ, «Archaeological evidence points to second sphinx at Giza», The Egyptian Gazette du 14 janvier 2001). 

Mais Zahi HAWASS conteste énergiquement cette annonce :

Si ce chercheur possède vraiment une photo satellite de la NASA confirmant l’existence d’un rocher enfoui [à cet endroit]…Pourquoi ne nous la montre-t-il pas ?… Comment le Sphinx peut-il être âgé de dix mille ans ?… Un écrivain italien, non-spécialiste, avait publié un ouvrage dans lequel il avance l’existence d’un second sphinx sur le plateau de Gizeh. Par la suite, un guide touristique égyptien dénommé Bassâm AL-CHAMMÂ’ a repris cette hypothèse dans un ouvrage qu’il a publié en arabe». (Wafâ’ CHA’ÎRA, «À la recherche du sphinx numéro 2», Ruz al-Yûsuf du 6 janvier 2001).

source


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Was There a Second Great Sphinx at Giza?



From the Sphinx Stele.

Source

© Photo copyright Larry Orcutt

The Great Sphinx, carved from bedrock at Giza, is a unique monument. There had been nothing like it before, and nothing like it was to be constructed on the same scale since. But in ancient Egyptian iconography, sphinxes usually traveled in pairs. Could there have been a second Great Sphinx at Giza? Archaeologist Michael Poe is certain of it. He wrote:

There is currently absolutely no archaeological evidence of Khephren 'repairing' the Sphinx. There are two ancient Egyptian references, both during the Middle Kingdom, at a considerably later time. One has it that Khephren found the Sphinx (which would support the Sphinx is older than Khepern), and that Khephern altered it's face. This same source (fragmentary papyrus) said that there was another Sphinx facing this one on the other side of the Nile, and both were built here to represent the dividing line between Northern and Southern Egypt. The other reference said that Khephren built the Sphinx.

Have you ever seen just one Sphinx in later Egypt that didn't have another? Not only did the ancient Egyptians mention a second Sphinx, but so did the Greeks, Romans, and Muslims. It was destroyed between 1000-1200 ad.

At the entrance to buildings and temples there are two Sphinxes, side by side, but on the avenue or approach to the temple they are facing each other. Sometimes they may have as much as 100 or so facing each other in the avenue. The Nile is Egypt's avenue between North and South. All of the writings about the two Sphinxes say that they were facing each other. The second one, by the way, was partly destroyed during a high Nile flood, and then completely destroyed by ensuing Moslems carting it off to rebuild their villages.

Poe has more recently added the following information:

I'm not particularly proposing it's absolutely true, after all the people in Egypt in the 1000-1200's were subject to telling some pretty big stories (so are some the present day "guides").
It was, as I recall, made out of mudbrick and faced with stone. It makes sense that the stone would disappear around 1200 ad, Cairo had a large earthquake and the people used facing stones from the Great Pyramid to rebuild part of the town and would also use the ones at the 2nd Sphinx. That would leave the mudbrick to deteriorate to the weather, and the Nile gradually moved east away from the pyramids and may have engulfed and erased the 2nd Sphinx.

The Arab writers who mention a 2nd Sphinx are:

Al-I'Drisi (AD 1099-1166) who wrote about it in Kitab al-Mamalik wa al-Mansalik (a large geographic encyclopedia) and Al-Kitab al-Jujari, a geographical encyclopedia on Asia and Africa. He describes a second sphinx across the Nile from the first in very bad state of repair, made of mud (bricks?) and faced with stone, most of the stone having been hauled away by local inhabitants and now the Nile "lapping at it's feet." He doesn't say if it was the same size, but since the Nile moved further east after AD 1166, then it would have been destroyed.

Ibn Battuta (AD 1307-1377) in his Travels in Asia and Africa doesn't mention it, either because it doesn't exist, or has already been destroyed by then (it was written around AD 1325-1354).

Musabbihi mentions a smaller Sphinx across the Nile from the large one "south of Cairo" in a "ruined state of brick and stone" in the Annals of Rabi II around AD 1024.

Nasir-i Khosrau visited Egypt between Aug 1047 and April 1048 and heard rumors of a second one but apparently never looked for it or saw it.

It could have been a larger than usual Sphinx that normally lines the road to a temple and was the last of the line left after the Nile crept over to the location and destroyed all the others, easy to visualize as the destruction of the outer stones of the others would leave the mudbrick exterior subject to the flooding of the Nile.

Horus sphinxes at Edfu.



© Photo copyright Larry Orcutt

Authors Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval also believe that a second sphinx was likely. In their book The Message of the Sphinx, they maintain that the Sphinx was made to represent Atum-Harmachis (Harmachis being the Greek rendering of Hor-em-Akhet or Horus-in-the-Horizon). A stele of Amenhotep II names the Great Sphinx as both Hor-em-Akhet and Horakhti. The authors note that both names are frequently translated as "Horus-of-the-Two-Horizons." They write:

So if Hor-em-Akhet is the Great Sphinx in the western 'Horizon of Giza,' then should we not look for Horakhti, his, 'twin,' in the eastern horizon of the sky? [p. 162]

Assuming Michael Poe is correct with his details, there would be no trace remaining of the alleged second Sphinx, for on the eastern bank of the Nile there is nothing but city. Any evidence of such a monument would have been erased forever. There is little to support the notion that such a second sphinx ever existed at all, however. Despite Hancock and Bauval's assertions, the Great Sphinx was not identified with Hor-em-Akhet until centuries after the close of the Old Kingdom. In Riddles of the Sphinx, Paul Jordan wrote:

It [the Great Sphinx] might possibly have had a companion if its sculptors had cared to repeat the exercise of carving it... The later sphinxes of Egypt were often installed as pairs to guard entrances to significant places... An eminent Egyptologist once spent some time looking for another Great Sphinx on the other side of the river, but eventually gave up the idea. [p. 1]

Although Jordan does not name this individual, it is very likely W.M. Flinders Petrie, the "father of modern Egyptology." Margaret Drower, author of a recent biography of Petrie, wrote (Flinders Petrie: A Life in Archaeology, p. 353):

As the season neared its end [1921-22], news came of the death of Mrs Urlin; Hilda hurried home, but Flinders stayed on a little in Cairo; he wanted to test a theory that the Great Sphinx at Giza might have had a counterpart on the other side of the Nile; he walked from Ma'adi over every foot of the ground opposite the pyramids, examining each outcrop of rock, and decided that there was no evidence for a contra-sphinx.

 
Commentaire personnel du traducteur: A noter que, si l'article est toujours en ligne, aucune preuve n'est venue depuis  étayer les dires de Bassâm Al Chammâ', soient presque 6 années de silence. Pourquoi en parler, me direz-vous ? Pour savoir et éviter que cette annonce soit présentée ailleurs sous un jour faussement meilleur.
« Modifié: 02 avril 2014 à 23:33:12 par katchina »
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titilapin2

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Re : Autres théories alternative Egypte (2nd sphinx, ...)
« Réponse #2 le: 29 août 2009 à 12:45:57 »

"THE SECOND SPHINX THEORY"

By its original author

BASSAM SHAMMAH
Lectrer and auther in Egyptolog.
   Graduated of Victory Collage in Alexandria     Studied Ancient Egyption Pharaonic ,Greco-     Roman, Islamic and Modern History at  the       Faculty of Tourism,Helwan University Cairo       Has lectured throughout USA ,Egypt ,Europe        South Africa .Radio and T.V. history editor.

    This theory was born at the same time that the word symmetrical was born. The ancient Egyptian artist always depicted his scenes, drew his characters on papyri ,painted the walls of the tombs and temples and erected his obelisks and statues in a harmonical and symmetrical  manner. It became an artistic and religious tradition that lasted throughout the Pharaonic epoch. The facade of the temple  was  a  ways  built in the form of two pylons (fortress-like construction), symbolizing the two eternal hills forming a design, which was definitely copied from  nature. With the sun setting between these two rising hills, it provided the ancients the description of the horizon. Two mounds, with the solar disc  in between was the "AKER" or horizon.
 
 

                                                                                                          Symetry was also in the end position of the royal statues , like those, which are in front of the Ramses 11  pylons of Luxor Temple. There were three in front of each pylon. Two seated and flanking the entrance and four standing statues, two on each side of the  pylon. There were also two identical obelisks erected in front of the seate figures, the eastern one is still there, the western one is now in the Concorde Square in Paris,France.

***         

There were double avenues of sphinxes to guard and protect the Pharaoh during his passing in and out of the temple. Protection always came from  both sides the passerby, his left and right side. Of course, it is not logical to protect someone from one side only, as that would easily allow evil, whatever it is or wherever it is coming from, or in whatever form it comes  according to the belief of the period, to attack from the unprotected side. Therefore, by adding symmetry to logic, it is only correct to believe that there should not be one lion or sphinx on its own in ancient Egypt. Moreover, there are more reasons to make us believe in this concept, this time it is documented.

According to the Heliopolitan cult, the creator of the whole universe was"Atum"(spelled Tem in some hieroglyphic texts). This was the first appearance of th sun deity of Heliopolis, who later took on many forms and various names, like "Ra" referring to the sun in its midday phase, when it is strong and most powerful. The priest also called the sun deity "Khepri," referring to the sun in its early day phase, during and after sunrise. But, Atum was the sun during sunset. Depending upon pre-dynastic beliefs, cults and traditions the priests of ancient Egypt wrote,composed and carved on the pyramids burial chambers walls hymns and magical texts. They were called "The Pyramid Texts." The most important collection of such texts are on the walls of the burial chambers of the pyramids of Pharaoh Unas or Wenis (23562323 BQ and Pharaoh Teti (2323-2291 BQ in Saqqarah. These magical utterances contain prayers and explanations of how and why the deities came into existence, also, the religious relationship between the creations and nature in the most poetic, romantic, and sometimes exotic ways. The most pioneering pyramid concerning the pyramid texts is the Wenis Pyramid, it was called, "the pyramid which is beautiful of places," it was originally 43 meters high, its angle was 56" 18' 35", its base is 57.5 meter square.Teti followed    in Wenis footsteps; he called his pyramid "the pyramid, which is enduring of places."

source et suite
« Modifié: 02 avril 2014 à 23:38:25 par katchina »
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